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TYPES OF HEREDITARY LYMPHEDEMA

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There are three main types of hereditary lymphedema.

Hereditary Lymphedema I - Milroy's Disease

Related Terms: Nonne-Milroy lymphedema, Milroy's Disease, Primary congenital hereditary lymphedema, hereditary lymphedema I, Nonne-Milroy-Meige disease

Milroy's Syndrome is an old term used to describe hereditary congenital lymphedema. It is a congenital familial primary lymphedema which results from vertical autosomal inheritance of a single gene. The gene has been identified as VEGFR3. The condition usually presents itself at birth with the swelling of one or even both legs.

If the condition is unilateral (single leg), the other leg may continue in the latency stage for years before expressing itself. The same is indicated for arm lymphedema.

It is the rarest of the inherited lymphedema, accounting for approximately 2% of hereditary lymphedemas.

Hereditary lymphedema was first described by Nonne in 1891, however in 1892 Dr. William F. Milroy described a missionary who had returned from work in India who had swollen legs his entire life. His mother likewise was afflicted with the same condition. Milroy had also, previously studied the 250 year history of a family and had been able to identify 22 persons with this condition through 6 generations. He was also able to pinpoint when the condition entered the family through a marriage in 1768.

Diagnosis

Basic diagnosis can be made by the fact that swelling (generally of the legs) presents at birth and there is a family history of similar swelling.  Currently the most precise diagnosis can be made by a lymphoscintigraphy test. In this test a radioactive substance is injected into the limb and is traced on a computer screen. Through this method the exact location of the lymphatic blockages can be identified.

Etiology

The cause of Milroy's Syndrome is a break in the VEGFR3 gene.

Complications

The usual complications involved with the condition include fibrosis of the limb tissues, cellulitis (and or lymphangitis and erysipelas infections).  Other complications made include involvement of the genitalia, pain, skin conditions and in very rare situations lymphangiosarcoma.

Treatment

Decongestive therapy is the most widely accepted form of treatment.  There is no cure for Milroy's but the condition can be managed by early diagnosis and treatment.

Prognosis

Long term prognosis is excellent is the condition is identified early and treatment begins so after the diagnosis is made.

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Stages

LATENCY STAGE
Lymphatic transport capacity is reduced
No visible/palpable edema
Subjective complaints are possible

STAGE I
(Reversible Lymphedema)
Accumulation of protein rich edema fluid
Pitting edema
Reduces with elevation (no fibrosis)

STAGE II
(Spontaneously Irreversible Lymphedema)
Accumulation of protein rich edema fluid
Pitting becomes progressively more difficult
Connective tissue proliferation (fibrosis)

STAGE III
(Lymphostatic Elephantiasis)
Accumulation of protein rich edema fluid
Non pitting
Fibrosis and sclerosis (severe induration)
Skin changes (papillomas, hyperkeratosis, etc.)

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Noone-Milroy-Type Hereditary Lymphedema

Also known as Lymphedema I, this disorder presents as brawny edema usually of the lower extremity. The diagnosis is usually made at birth. Tissue swelling occurs distally or proximally in the involved limbs, and either hypoplasia or hyperplasia of the lymphatics has been found.

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Hereditary Lymphedema Type II - Lymphedema Praecox Meige

See also: Nonne-Milroy-Meige Syndrome, Meige's lymphedema, Hereditary lymphedema II, familial lymphedema praecox

Form of primary hereditary lymphedema that starts at or around the time of puberty. The affected limbs are generally the legs.  

Named after French physician Dr. Henri Meige who first described hereditary lymphedema in 1891. This form of lymphedema which usually presents itself at or during puberty is the most common of the hereditary lymphedemas, account for 65-80% of all diagnosed cases.

Meige-Type Lymphedema

Also known as Lymphedema II, this syndrome is similar to Lymphedema I but the onset of peripheral edema occurs during the second to the fifth decades. The legs are the most commonly involved, and lymphangiography reveals hypoplasia of peripheral lymphatics with dilation of lymphatic trunks.

Diagnosis

Basic diagnosis can be made by the fact that swelling (generally of the legs) presents during puberty  and there is a family history of similar swelling.  Currently the most precise diagnosis can be made by a lymphoscintigraphy test. In this test a radioactive substance is injected into the limb and is traced on a computer screen. Through this method the exact location of the lymphatic blockages can be identified.

Etiology

The cause of Lymphedema Praecox is a break in the FOXC2 gene. 

Complications

The usual complications involved with the condition include fibrosis of the limb tissues, cellulitis (and or lymphangitis and erysipelas infections).  Other complications made include involvement of the genitalia, pain, skin conditions and in very rare situations lymphangiosarcoma.

Other Indications

Related conditions may also include yellow nail syndrome, pulmonary hypertension, cerebrovascular malformations and distichiasis

Treatment

Decongestive therapy is the most widely accepted form of treatment.  There is no cure for Lymphedema praecox but the condition can be managed by early diagnosis and treatment.

Prognosis

Long term prognosis is excellent if  the condition is identified early and treatment begins so after the diagnosis is made.

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Hereditary Lymphedema Type III - Lymphedema Tarda

See Also: Delayed Onset Lymphedema, Hereditary Lymphedema Tarda

Form of primary hereditary lymphedema that expresses itself during middle age (generally onset 35+ years).  Swelling generally occurs in the legs and may involve either one or both limbs.  There is a higher incidence of lymphedema tarda among females than males.

This form of inherited lymphedema accounts for approximately 10% of those with primary lymphedema.

Diagnosis

Basic diagnosis can be made by the fact that swelling (generally of the legs) unexpectedly  and there is a family history of similar swelling.  Currently the most precise diagnosis can be made by a lymphoscintigraphy test. In this test a radioactive substance is injected into the limb and is traced on a computer screen. Through this method the exact location of the lymphatic blockages can be identified.

Etiology

The cause of lymphedema tarda is a break in the FOXC2  gene.

Complications

The usual complications involved with the condition include fibrosis of the limb tissues, cellulitis (and or lymphangitis and erysipelas infections).  Other complications made include involvement of the genitalia, pain, skin conditions and in very rare situations lymphangiosarcoma.

Treatment

Decongestive therapy is the most widely accepted form of treatment.  There is no cure for lymphedema tarda but the condition can be managed by early diagnosis and treatment.

Prognosis

Long term prognosis is excellent is the condition is identified early and treatment begins so after the diagnosis is made

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National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.

Lymphedema, Hereditary

Important

It is possible that the main title of the report is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.

Synonyms
None
Disorder Subdivisions
Hereditary Lymphedema, Type I
Congenital Hereditary Lymphedema
Milroy Disease
Nonne-Milroy-Meige Syndrome
Hereditary Lymphedema, Type II
Meige's Lymphedema
Familial Lymphedema Praecox
Hereditary Lymphedema Tarda
Related Disorders List
Information on the following diseases can be found in the Related Disorders section of this report:
Hereditary Angioedema
Lymphedema (Traumatic)
Elephantiasis
Distichiasis-Lymphedema Syndrome
Lymphedema and Ptosis

General Discussion

Hereditary Lymphedema is an inherited disorder of the lymphatic system that is characterized by abnormal swelling of certain parts of the body. The lymphatic system is a circulatory network of vessels, ducts, and nodes that filter and distribute certain fluid (lymph) and blood cells throughout the body. Lymphatic fluid collects in the soft tissues in and under the skin (subcutaneous) due to the obstruction, malformation, or underdevelopment (hypoplasia) of various lymphatic vessels.

There are three forms of Hereditary Lymphedema: Congenital Hereditary Lymphedema or Milroy Disease, Lymphedema Praecox or Meige Disease, and Lymphedema Tarda. In most cases, Hereditary Lymphedema is inherited as an autosomal dominant genetic trait.

Symptoms

The primary symptom of Hereditary Lymphedema is swelling or puffiness in different parts of the body due to the accumulation of lymphatic fluid in the soft layers of tissue under the skin (lymphedema). Swelling frequently occurs below the waist, especially in the legs, but may also be present in the face, voice box (larynx), and arms. When lymphedema develops in the legs, swelling may begin in the foot and move upward. In some cases, swelling may cause discomfort and unusual tingling sensations (paresthesias) in the affected areas. Poor healing, following even minor trauma (e.g., cut or insect bite), may also occur; permanent structural changes in the skin, with abnormal thickening, often follow longstanding edema.

Infants with Hereditary Lymphedema Type I, also known as Congenital Hereditary Lymphedema or Milroy Disease, have areas of swelling at birth. The swelling tends to slowly worsen with advancing age.

Hereditary Lymphedema Type II or Meige Disease usually develops during childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood. This form of the disease usually produces severe swelling in areas below the waist. The first symptoms of Hereditary Lymphedema Type II usually include red skin over areas of swelling and associated discomfort and/or inflammation.

Hereditary Lymphedema Tarda usually occurs after the age of 35 years. The symptoms are similar to those of Hereditary Lymphedema Type II.

Complications of Hereditary Lymphedema may include inflammation of lymphatic vessels (lymphangitis) and infection of the skin (cellulitis) characterized by areas of warm and painful reddened skin that are hot to the touch. Red skin "streaks" may also develop. A general feeling of ill health (malaise), fever, chills, and/or headaches may also occur. If left untreated, cellulitis can lead to skin abscesses, areas of ulceration, and/or tissue damage (necrosis). Some people with this condition may develop persistent fluid accumulation in the lungs (pleural effusion). The most serious long-term complication of all forms of Hereditary Lymphedema is a minor increased risk for the development of a malignancy in the affected area (i.e., lymphangiosarcoma).

Causes

Most cases of Hereditary Lymphedema are inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Human traits, including the classic genetic diseases, are the product of the interaction of two genes, one received from the father and one from the mother.

In dominant disorders, a single copy of the disease gene (received from either the mother or father) will be expressed "dominating" the other normal gene and resulting in the appearance of the disease. The risk of transmitting the disorder from affected parent to offspring is 50 percent for each pregnancy regardless of the sex of the resulting child.

In some rare cases, Hereditary Lymphedema is thought to be inherited as an autosomal recessive or X-linked recessive genetic disorder.

In recessive disorders, the condition does not appear unless a person inherits the same defective gene for the same trait from each parent. If an individual receives one normal gene and one gene for the disease, the person will be a carrier for the disease, but usually will not show symptoms. The risk of transmitting the disease to the children of a couple, both of whom are carriers for a recessive disorder, is 25 percent. Fifty percent of their children risk being carriers of the disease, but generally will not show symptoms of the disorder. Twenty-five percent of their children may receive both normal genes, one from each parent, and will be genetically normal (for that particular trait). The risk is the same for each pregnancy.

X-linked recessive disorders are conditions that are coded on the X chromosome. Females have two X chromosomes, but males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. Therefore, in females, disease traits on the X chromosome can be masked by the normal gene on the other X chromosome. Since males only have one X chromosome, if they inherit a gene for a disease present on the X, it will be expressed. Men with X-linked disorders transmit the gene to all their daughters, who are carriers, but never to their sons. Women who are carriers of an X-linked disorder have a 50 percent risk of transmitting the carrier condition to their daughters, and a 50 percent risk of transmitting the disease to their sons.

Some cases of Hereditary Lymphedema may occur because of a spontaneous change in genetic material early in fetal development (sporadic).

The symptoms of Hereditary Lymphedema develop because of obstruction of the lymphatic vessels due to multiple malformations of the lymphatic vascular system. In some cases, there may be a reduction in the number of lymphatic vessels or the vessels may be underdeveloped (hypoplastic). However, in some cases, the reverse is true and lymphatic vessels may be unusually large (hyperplastic) and numerous.

Affected Populations

Congenital Hereditary Lymphedema (Type I) affects more females than males. Hereditary Lymphedema Type II (Meige Disease) affects males and females in equal numbers.

Approximately 1 in 6,000 people in the United States are affected by Hereditary Lymphedema. The symptoms of Congenital Hereditary Lymphedema (Type I) are typically present at birth. The onset of Hereditary Lymphedema Type II can occur during childhood, adolescence, or adulthood (i.e., between the ages of 10 to 35 years). The symptoms of Hereditary Lymphedema Tarda generally occur after the age of 35 years.

Related Disorders

Symptoms of the following disorders can be similar to those of Hereditary Lymphedema. Comparisons may be useful for a differential diagnosis:

Hereditary Angioedema is a rare inherited vascular disorder characterized by the excessive accumulation of body fluids in lymphatic vessels or veins. The outstanding symptom of this disorder is swelling (edema) on the back of the hands or feet, eyelids, lips, and/or genitals. Edema may also occur in the mucous membranes that line the respiratory and digestive tracts. The areas of swelling may be hard and painful, but they are typically not red or itchy (pruritic). A skin rash (urticaria) is rarely present. Hereditary Angioedema is inherited as an autosomal dominant genetic trait. (For more information on this disorder, choose "Angioedema" as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.)

Traumatic Lymphedema is caused by injury to the lymph system or blunt trauma (bruising). Localized lymphedema may be due to postinfectious syndromes, post-radiation fibrosis, tumor growth, and/or surgery (e.g., mastectomy). Symptoms may include swelling, pitting, redness, discomfort, and/or tingling sensations.

Elephantiasis is an infectious tropical disease of the lymphatic system and is characterized by gross enlargement of an arm or leg or other areas of the trunk or head. The skin develops a thickened, pebbly appearance and may become ulcerated and darkened. Fever, chills, and a general feeling of ill health (malaise) may also be present. Inflammation of the lymphatic vessels causes extreme enlargement of the affected areas. This condition occurs most commonly in tropical regions and particularly in parts of Africa. (For more information on this disorder, choose "Elephantiasis" as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.)

The following disorders may occur in association with Hereditary Lymphedema as secondary characteristics. They are not necessary for a differential diagnosis:

Yellow Nail Syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by yellow, thickened, and curved nails with almost complete stoppage of nail growth. A loss of cuticles may also be associated with this syndrome. Loosening of the nails (onycholysis) may cause loss of some nails. This condition is usually associated with the presence of fluid in the lungs (plural effusion) and swelling of the arms and legs (lymphedema). Other respiratory problems may occur such as chronic inflammation of the bronchi and bronchioles (bronchiectasis), chronic bronchitis, and/or ongoing inflammation of the membranes that line the sinus cavities (sinusitis). The exact cause of this disease is not known. (For more information on this disorder, choose "Yellow Nail" as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.)

Distichiasis-Lymphedema Syndrome is a rare inherited disorder characterized by the presence of extra eyelashes (distichiasis) and swelling of the arms and legs (lymphedema). Swelling of the legs, especially below the knees, and eye irritation are common in people with this disorder. Occasionally, cysts on the spine (epidural) and other abnormalities of the spinal column may also occur. Distichiasis-Lymphedema Syndrome is inherited as an autosomal dominant genetic trait.

Lymphedema and Ptosis is an extremely rare inherited condition and is characterized by droopy eyelids (ptosis) and swelling (lymphedema), especially in the legs.

Standard Therapies

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of Hereditary Lymphedema may be confirmed by a thorough clinical evaluation and specialized imaging tests. The structure of the lymphatic system may be investigated with special nuclear studies (i.e., indirect radio isotope, lymphoscintigraphy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT scanning may yield information that supports the diagnosis.

Treatment

Complete decongestive therapy (CDT) is a form of treatment in which specialized massage techniques are coupled with therapeutic bandaging, meticulous skin care, exercise, and the use of well-fitted compression garments.

Occasionally, drugs that promote excessive urinary output (i.e., diuretics) may be somewhat helpful for people with Hereditary Lymphedema. These medications increase urinary output and may help to reduce swelling in some affected individuals. However, diuretics have not been uniformly successful in reducing the swelling associated with this disorder. The prolonged use of diuretics for the treatment of Hereditary Lymphedema should be carefully directed by a physician as these medications may have several long-term side effects.

In some cases, the surgical joining of small lymphatic vessels to nearby small veins (microsurgical anastomosis) has had some limited success in people with Lymphedema. The goal of this surgery is to reduce swelling by creating new pathways for lymphatic fluid flow and "rechanneling" this flow into the venous system.

Genetic counseling will benefit people with Hereditary Lymphedema and their families.

Investigational Therapies

Research on genetic disorders and their causes is ongoing. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is sponsoring the Human Genome Project which is aimed at mapping every gene in the human body and learning why they sometimes malfunction. It is hoped that this new knowledge will lead to prevention and treatment of genetic and familial disorders in the future.

*Link no longer available*

References

ONLINE MENDELIAN INHERITANCE IN MAN (OMIM). Victor A. McKusick, Editor; Johns Hopkins University, last edit date 4/18/95. Entry Number 153200; last edit date 3/9/99, Entry Number 153100; last edit date 11/6/94, Entry Number 153000.

CECIL TEXTBOOK OF MEDICINE, 20th Ed.: J. Claude Bennett and Fred Plum, Editors; W.B. Saunders Co., 1996. P. 357.

HARRISON'S PRINCIPLES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE, 14th Ed.: Kurt J. Isselbacher, M.D. et al., Editors; McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1998. Pp. 1405-06.

THE MERCK MANUAL, 17th Ed.: Robert Berkow and Mark Beers, Editors; Merck Research Laboratories; 1999. P. 1798.

TEXTBOOK OF DERMATOLOGY, 5th Ed.: R.H. Champion et al., Editors; Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1992. Pp. 2018-23.

BIRTH DEFECTS ENCYCLOPEDIA, Mary Louise Buyse, Editor-In-Chief; Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1990. Pp. 1087-89.

NELSON TEXTBOOK OF PEDIATRICS, 15th Ed.: Richard E. Behrman, Editor; W.B. Saunders Company, 1996. Pp. 1440-41.

DICTIONARY OF MEDICAL SYNDROMES, 3rd Ed.: Sergio I. Magalini, Sabina C. Magalini, and Giovanni de Francisci, Editors; J.B. Lippincott Company, 1990. Pp. 637-38.

18 STEPS TO PREVENTION FOR LOWER EXTREMITIES. S. Thiadens, R.N.; National Lymphadema Network Special Circular (1998).

CDP TREATMENT OF SMALL CHILDREN AND INFANTS WITH PRIMARY (CONGENITAL) LYMPHEDEMA. G. Klose; National Lymphedema Network Newsletter (Jan-Mar 1998; 10(1)). Pp. 1-5.

TREATMENT OF LYMPHEDEMA WITH COMPLETE DECONGESTIVE PHYSIOTHERAPY. J.E. Zuther; National Lymphedema Network Newsletter (Apr-Jun 1999; 11(2)). Pp. 3-8.

PRIMARY LYMPHEDEMA. S.G. Rockson, Author; In: Currenty Therapy in Vascular Surgery, 4th Ed.: C. B. Ernst et al., Editors; Mosby.

LYMPHEDEMA: A REVIEW OF THE RELEVANT ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE LYMPHATICS. A. Szuba et al.; Vascular Medicine (1997; 2). Pp. 321-26.

LYMPHEDEMA: A REVIEW OF DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES AND THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS. A. Szuba et al.; Vascular Medicine (1998; 3). Pp. 145-56.

HEREDITARY LATE-ONSET LYMPHEDEMA WITH PLEURAL EFFUSION AND LARYNGEAL EDEMA. F.A. Herbert et al.; Arch Intern Med (May 1983; 143(5)). Pp. 913-15.

HEREDITARY LYMPHEDEMA AND DISTICHIASIS. T. Kolin et al.; Arch Ophthalmol (Jul 1991; 109(7)). Pp. 980-81.

LYMPHANGIOSARCOMA IN CHRONIC HEREDITARY OEDEMA (MILROY'S DISEASE). L.A. Brostrom et al.; Ann Chir Gynaecol (1989; 78(4)). Pp. 320-23.

CONGENITAL HEREDITARY LYMPHEDEMA (NONNE/MILROY). D.D. Farhud et al.; Padiatrpa Padol (1989; 24(4)). Pp. 305-07.

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VEGFR3 and FOXC2 - Lymphedema Genetics
University of Pittsburg

VEGFR3
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) was the first lymphedema gene to be identified. VEGFR3, which was formerly known as FLT4, is located on chromosome 5 and is known to be involved in the formation of lymphatic vessels during prenatal development. VEGFR3 causes congenital lymphedema (swelling which is present from birth). To date we have identified lymphedema-causing genetic changes (mutations) in 5 participating families.

Our article entitled "Hereditary Lymphedema: Evidence for Linkage and Genetic Heterogeneity" was published in the December, 1998, issue of the scientific journal, Human Molecular Genetics. Those who wish to view the Human Molecular Genetics abstract may see it online at PubMed. We also wrote a summary for the National Lymphedema Network Newsletter in January, 1999. Another article, entitled "Missense mutations interfere with VEGFR-3 signalling in primary lymphoedema," describes the affect of 4 different mutations in the VEGFR3 gene. It was published in June, 2000 in the scientific journal Nature Genetics. That abstract may also be read online at PubMed. Copies of these articles are available in most medical libraries.

FOXC2
FOXC2 was the second lymphedema gene to be identified. It is responsible for causing the lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome (LD). Individuals with LD have lymphedema of pubertal or adult onset as well as distichiasis, which is the presence of extra eyelashes. These eyelashes may simply appear long and thick, or they may become ingrown or irritate the eye, in which case they are often removed. Less frequently, individuals with LD may be born with a heart defect, cleft palate (opening in the roof of the mouth), or ptosis (droopy eyelids). We have identified changes or mutations in the FOXC2 gene in 12 families participating in the Lymphedema Family Study.

Lymphedema-distichiasis was first localized to chromosome 16 in 1999 by Mangion et al. The abstract, entitled "A gene for lymphedema-distichiasis maps to 16q24.3," is available at PubMed. However, FOXC2 was not identified as the causative gene until 2001 by Fang at al in an article entitled "Mutations in FOXC2 (MFH-1), a forkhead family transcription factor, are responsible for the hereditary lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome." This abstract is also available on PubMed. Our paper on FOXC2, entitled "Truncating mutations in FOXC2 cause multiple lymphedema syndromes," was published in Human Molecular Genetics also in the year 2001. The abstract of our publication is available on PubMed as well.


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Not all hereditary lymphedema is caused by VEGFR3 or FOXC2, indicating that there is at least one other gene (probably many more) responsible for hereditary lymphedema. This phenomenon, the existence of more than one gene responsible for the same condition, is called genetic heterogeneity. We are continuing to look for the location of these additional lymphedema genes.

General results regarding the progress of the study will be made available to participants in several ways. Updates will be posted on this website, and articles will be published in the National Lymphedema Network's Newsletter whenever significant new developments have occured. In addition, if you are a participant in this study and a mutation was identified in your family, you will receive a letter with additional information about the discovery, and you will be offered the opportunity to receive your research results if you want them. Your individual research results will only be disclosed to you or if applicable, your legal guardian, unless we are provided with written permission to release those results to another individual.

In most cases specific genetic information is not yet available for individual families or family members. However, as new genes are identified and proven to be responsible for causing lymphedema in specific families, we will continue to contact the participating family members to inform them of this finding and discuss the impact of this information on them and their family. At that time individual genetic information will be offered to those participants who are interested. However, any genetic information provided by this study will be in the form of research results only and should not be used for medical decision-making without confirmation by a laboratory offering clinical or diagnostic testing. Those individuals who receive research results may elect to have confirmatory testing from a certified diagnostic laboratory. This would involve an additional blood sample and possibly the signing of another consent form. We are currently negotiating with a local laboratory to arrange this testing at a reduced rate for study participants.

We would like to remind you that this is a research study, and therefore, we cannot guarantee that any information will be available to individual families or participants. This study does not provide diagnosis or treatment of lymphedema, and is not designed to result in any direct benefit to the participants. However, it is our hope that it will benefit lymphedema patients in the future. In addition, the participation of families and family members is voluntary and confidential. Advances in understanding the underlying cause of lymphedema are critically dependent on the participation of individuals and families in research such as ours, so for those families participating in our study, we would like to thank you once again. Should you have any questions or concerns about this information or the study in general, please don't hesitate to call Kerry Lorenzo at (412) 624-4657.

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Lymphedema Hereditary

http://www.rarediseases.org/rare-disease-information/rare-diseases/byID/239/viewAbstract

Syndromic Classification of Hereditary Lymphedema

http://www.eurolymphology.org/syndromic-classification-of-hereditary-lymphedema

=======Internal Links===========

HEREDITARY LYMPHEDEMA TYPE I

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=milroys_syndrome  

HEREDiTARY LYMPHEDEMA TYPE II  

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/lymphedema_praecox_meige_syndrome.htm

HEREDITARY LYMPHEDEMA TYPE III

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_tarda

STEWART-TREVES SYNDROME

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/lymphedema_stewart_treves_syndrome.htm

YELLOW NAIL SYNDROME

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=yellow_nail_syndrome

HENNEKAM LYMPHANGIECTASIA

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/lymphedema_hennekam_lymphangiect.htm

TURNER SYNDROME

 http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/lymphedema_turner_syndrome.htm

KLIPPEL-TRENAUNAY-WEBER SYNDROME

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=klippel_trenaunay_weber_syndrome

NOONAN'S SYNDROME

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=noonan_s_syndrome 

LYMPHEDEMA-DISTICHIASIS SYNDROME

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/lymphedema_distichiasis.htm

LYMPHEDEMA-CHOLESTASIS SYNDROME

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/lymphedema_cholestasis_syndrome.htm

LYMPHEDEMA, MICROCEPHALY

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/lymphedema_microcephaly_chorioretinopathy.htm

LYMPHEDEMA CHORIORETINOPATHY SYNDROME

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/lymphedema_microcephaly_chorioretinopathy.htm

LYMPHEDEMA-HYPOPARATHYROIDISM SYNDROME

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/lymphedema_hypoparathyroidism2.htm

 LYMPHEDEMA, CONGENITAL RECESSIVE SYNDROME

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/lymphedema_congenital_recessive_.htm

HYPOTRICHOSIS-LYMPHEDEMA-TELANGIECTASIA SYNDROME

LYMPHEDEMA AND PTOSIS SYNDROME

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/hypotrichosis_lymphedema.htm

LYMPHEDEMA AND CEREBRAL ARTERIOVENOUS ANOMALY  (and/or)

LYMPHEDEMA AVASTHEY ROY SYNDROME

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/lymphedema_avasthey_roy_syndrome.htm

ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA ANHIDROTIC WITH IMMUNODEFICIENCY

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/ectodermal_dysplasia_hypohidrotic_immune_deficiency.htm

OSTEOPETROSIS AND LYMPHEDEMA

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/lymphedema_osteopetrosis_ectodermal.htm

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http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_in_children

Lymphedema Glossary

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=glossary:listing

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Lymphedema People - Support Groups

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Children with Lymphedema

The time has come for families, parents, caregivers to have a support group of their own. Support group for parents, families and caregivers of chilren with lymphedema. Sharing information on coping, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Sponsored by Lymphedema People.

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/childrenwithlymphedema/

Subscribe: childrenwithlymphedema-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

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Lipedema Lipodema Lipoedema

No matter how you spell it, this is another very little understood and totally frustrating conditions out there. This will be a support group for those suffering with lipedema/lipodema. A place for information, sharing experiences, exploring treatment options and coping.

Come join, be a part of the family!

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/lipedema_lipodema_lipoedema/?yguid=209645515

Subscribe: lipedema_lipodema_lipoedema-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

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MEN WITH LYMPHEDEMA

If you are a man with lymphedema; a man with a loved one with lymphedema who you are trying to help and understand come join us and discover what it is to be the master instead of the sufferer of lymphedema.

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/menwithlymphedema/

Subscribe: menwithlymphedema-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

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All About Lymphangiectasia

Support group for parents, patients, children who suffer from all forms of lymphangiectasia. This condition is caused by dilation of the lymphatics. It can affect the intestinal tract, lungs and other critical body areas.

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/allaboutlymphangiectasia/

Subscribe: allaboutlymphangiectasia-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

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Lymphatic Disorders Support Group @ Yahoo Groups

While we have a number of support groups for lymphedema... there is nothing out there for other lymphatic disorders. Because we have one of the most comprehensive information sites on all lymphatic disorders, I thought perhaps, it is time that one be offered.

DISCRIPTION

Information and support for rare and unusual disorders affecting the lymph system. Includes lymphangiomas, lymphatic malformations, telangiectasia, hennekam's syndrome, distichiasis, Figueroa
syndrome, ptosis syndrome, plus many more. Extensive database of information available through sister site Lymphedema People.

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/lymphaticdisorders/

Subscribe: lymphaticdisorders-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

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Lymphedema People New Wiki Pages

Have you seen our new “Wiki” pages yet?  Listed below are just a sample of the more than 140 pages now listed in our Wiki section. We are also working on hundred more.  Come and take a stroll! 

Lymphedema Glossary 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=glossary:listing 

Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema 

Arm Lymphedema  

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=arm_lymphedema 

Leg Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=leg_lymphedema 

Acute Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=acute_lymphedema 

The Lymphedema Diet 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=the_lymphedema_diet 

Exercises for Lymphedema  

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=exercises_for_lymphedema 

Diuretics are not for Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=diuretics_are_not_for_lymphedema 

Lymphedema People Online Support Groups 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_people_online_support_groups 

Lipedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lipedema 

Treatment 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=treatment 

Lymphedema and Pain Management 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_and_pain_management 

Manual Lymphatic Drainage (MLD) and Complex Decongestive Therapy (CDT)

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=manual_lymphatic_drainage_mld_complex_decongestive_therapy_cdt 

Infections Associated with Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=infections_associated_with_lymphedema 

How to Treat a Lymphedema Wound 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=how_to_treat_a_lymphedema_wound 

Fungal Infections Associated with Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=fungal_infections_associated_with_lymphedema 

Lymphedema in Children 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_in_children 

Lymphoscintigraphy 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphoscintigraphy 

Magnetic Resonance Imaging 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=magnetic_resonance_imaging 

Extraperitoneal para-aortic lymph node dissection (EPLND) 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=extraperitoneal_para-aortic_lymph_node_dissection_eplnd 

Axillary node biopsy 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=axillary_node_biopsy

Sentinel Node Biopsy 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=sentinel_node_biopsy

 Small Needle Biopsy - Fine Needle Aspiration 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=small_needle_biopsy 

Magnetic Resonance Imaging 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=magnetic_resonance_imaging 

Lymphedema Gene FOXC2

 http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_gene_foxc2

 Lymphedema Gene VEGFC

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_gene_vegfc

 Lymphedema Gene SOX18

 http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_gene_sox18

 Lymphedema and Pregnancy

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_and_pregnancy

Home page: Lymphedema People

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com

Page Updated: Nov. 29, 2011