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Trisomy 21

Trisomy 21 more commonly  known Down Syndrome, is a condition with possible lymphatic dysplasia involved and thus will present with lymphedema.

The lymphedema treatment program would include: Manual lymphatic drainage; compression wraps or compression bandages (using short stretch bandages), compression garments, compression sleeves.

Pat O'Connor

June 23, 2008

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Trisomy 21

Alternative names   

Trisomy 21, Down Syndrome

Definition   

Down syndrome is a chromosome abnormality, usually due to an extra copy of the 21st chromosome. This syndrome usually, although not always, results in mental retardation and other conditions.

Causes, incidence, and risk factors    

In most cases, Down syndrome is caused by an extra chromosome 21. It is the most common single cause of human birth defects, with an occurence in 1 out of every 660 births.

Children with Down syndrome have a widely recognized characteristic appearance. The head may be smaller than normal (microcephaly) and abnormally shaped. Prominent facial features include a flattened nose, protruding tongue, and upward slanting eyes. The inner corner of the eyes may have a rounded fold of skin (epicanthal fold) rather than coming to a point. The hands are short and broad with short fingers and often have a single crease in the palm (simian crease). Retardation of normal growth and development is typical and most affected children never reach average adult height.

Congenital heart defects are frequently present in Down syndrome children. Early mortality is often a result of cardiac abnormalities. Gastrointestinal abnormalities such as esophageal atresia (obstruction of the esophagus) and duodenal atresia (obstruction of the duodenum) are also relatively common. Obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract may require major surgery shortly after birth. Children with Down syndrome also have a higher than average incidence of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL).

Symptoms   

Signs and tests    

A heart murmur may be revealed by listening to the chest with a stethoscope. Characteristic abnormalities are revealed by a physical examination. These include a flattened facial profile, small ears, separation of the abdominal muscles, joint hyperflexibility, awkward gait, extra skin on back of neck at birth, and an abnormal bone in the middle of the 5th finger.

Early and massive vomiting may indicate obstruction of the esophagus or duodenum and less often lower segments of the gastrointestinal tract. This is sometimes discovered by inability at birth to pass a tube from the nose into the stomach or duodenum as well as by special x-rays.

Tests include:

Treatment    

There is no specific treatment for Down syndrome. Special education and training is offered in most communities for mentally handicapped children. Specific heart defects may require surgical correction. The potential for visual problems, hearing loss, and increased susceptibility to infection will require screening and treatment at appropriate intervals.

Support Groups    

National Down Syndrome Congress
1370 Center Drive, Suite 102
Atlanta, GA 30338
800-232-NDSC
www.ndsccenter.org

Expectations (prognosis)    

The normal life span is shortened in Down syndrome by congenital heart disease and by increased incidence of acute leukemia. Mental retardation is variable although usually of moderate severity. Some adults live independently and are accomplished individuals.

Complications    

There is a risk that uninformed people may assume a Down syndrome child is more retarded than he or she is.

Calling your health care provider    

A geneticist should be consulted to help determine the diagnosis and interpret rare chromosomal translocation cases of Down syndrome.

The health care provider should be consulted to evaluate the child for the need for special education and training. The need for follow-up of physical problems varies.

Prevention    

Genetic counseling is recommended in all families with Down syndrome. Down syndrome can be detected in a fetus in the first few months of pregnancy by examination of the chromosomes obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. The parents of a child with Down syndrome are at increased risk for having another child with Down syndrome. Mothers who become pregnant after age 40 are also at increased risk for having a child with Down syndrome.

Update Date: 8/19/2003

Updated by: Douglas R. Stewart, M.D., Division of Medical Genetics, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.

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Directory of Down Syndrome Sites

http://www.downsyndrome.com/

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National Down Syndrome Society

http://www.ndss.org/

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Down Syndrome: Health Issues

http://www.ds-health.com/

Trisomy 21: The Story of Down Syndrome

by Len Leshin, MD, FAAP

A Brief History

The formal story began in 1866, when a physician named John Langdon Down published an essay in England in which he described a set of children with common features who were distinct from other children with mental retardation. Down was superintendent of an asylum for children with mental retardation in Surrey, England when he made the first distinction between children who were cretins (later to be found to have hypothyroidism) and what he referred to as "Mongoloids."

Down based this unfortunate name on his notion that these children looked like people from Mongolia, who were thought then to have an arrested development. This ethnic insult came under fire in the early 1960s from Asian genetic researchers, and the term was dropped from scientific use. Instead, the condition became called "Down's syndrome." In the 1970s, an American revision of scientific terms changed it simply to "Down syndrome," while it still is called "Down's" in the UK and some places in Europe.

In the first part of the twentieth century, there was much speculation of the cause of Down syndrome. The first people to speculate that it might be due to chromosomal abnormalities were Waardenburg and Bleyer in the 1930s. But it wasn't until 1959 that Jerome Lejeune and Patricia Jacobs, working independently, first determined the cause to be trisomy (triplication) of the 21st chromosome. Cases of Down syndrome due to translocation and mosaicism (see definitions of these below) were described over the next three years.

The Chromosomes

Chromosomes are thread-like structures composed of DNA and other proteins. They are present in every cell of the body and carry the genetic information needed for that cell to develop. Genes, which are units of information, are "encoded" in the DNA. Human cells normally have 46 chromosomes which can be arranged in 23 pairs. Of these 23, 22 are alike in males and females; these are called the "autosomes." The 23rd pair are the sex chromosomes ('X' and 'Y'). Each member of a pair of chromosomes carries the same information, in that the same genes are in the same spots on the chromosome. However, variations of that gene ("alleles") may be present. (Example: the genetic information for eye color is a "gene;" the variations for blue, green, etc. are the "alleles.")

Human cells divide in two ways. The first is ordinary cell division ("mitosis"), by which the body grows. In this method, one cell becomes two cells which have the exact same number and type of chromosomes as the parent cell. The second method of cell division occurs in the ovaries and testicles ("meiosis") and consists of one cell splitting into two, with the resulting cells having half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell. So, normal eggs and sperm cells only have 23 chromosomes instead of 46.

This is what a normal set of chromosomes looks like. Note the 22 evenly paired
chromosomes plus the sex chromosomes. The XX means that this person is a female.
The test in which blood or skin samples are checked for the number and type of
chromosomes is called a karyotype, and the results look like this picture.
Normal Karyotype

Many errors can occur during cell division. In meiosis, the pairs of chromosomes are supposed to split up and go to different spots in the dividing cell; this event is called "disjunction." However, occasionally one pair doesn't divide, and the whole pair goes to one spot. This means that in the resulting cells, one will have 24 chromosomes and the other will have 22 chromosomes. This accident is called "nondisjunction." If a sperm or egg with an abnormal number of chromosomes merges with a normal mate, the resulting fertilized egg will have an abnormal number of chromosomes. In Down syndrome, 95% of all cases are caused by this event: one cell has two 21st chromosomes instead of one, so the resulting fertilized egg has three 21st chromosomes. Hence the scientific name, trisomy 21. Recent research has shown that in these cases, approximately 90% of the abnormal cells are the eggs. The cause of the nondisjunction error isn't known, but there is definitely connection with maternal age. Research is currently aimed at trying to determine the cause and timing of the nondisjunction event.

Here's the karyotype of a
male with trisomy 21:
  trisomy 21 karyotype

Three to four percent of all cases of trisomy 21 are due to Robertsonian Translocation. In this case, two breaks occur in separate chromosomes, usually the 14th and 21st chromosomes. There is rearrangement of the genetic material so that some of the 14th chromosome is replaced by extra 21st chromosome. So while the number of chromosomes remain normal, there is a triplication of the 21st chromosome material. Some of these children may only have triplication of part of the 21st chromosome instead of the whole chromosome, which is called a partial trisomy 21. Translocations resulting in trisomy 21 may be inherited, so it's important to check the chromosomes of the parents in these cases to see if either may be a "carrier."

The remainder of cases of trisomy 21 are due to mosaicism. These people have a mixture of cell lines, some of which have a normal set of chromosomes and others which have trisomy 21. In cellular mosaicism, the mixture is seen in different cells of the same type. In tissue mosaicism, one set of cells, such as all blood cells, may have normal chromosomes, and another type, such as all skin cells, may have trisomy 21.

The 21st Chromosome and Down Syndrome

The chromosomes are holders of the genes, those bits of DNA that direct the production of a wide array of materials the body needs. This direction by the gene is called the gene's "expression." In trisomy 21, the presence of an extra set of genes leads to overexpression of the involved genes, leading to increased production of certain products. For most genes, their overexpression has little effect due to the body's regulating mechanisms of genes and their products. But the genes that cause Down syndrome appear to be exceptions.

Which genes are involved? That's been the question researchers have asked ever since the third 21st chromosome was found. From years of research, one popular theory stated that only a small portion of the 21st chromosome actually needed to be triplicated to get the effects seen in Down syndrome; this was called the Down Syndrome Critical Region. However, this region is not one small isolated spot, but most likely several areas that are not necessarily side by side. The 21st chromosome may actually hold 200 to 250 genes (being the smallest chromosome in the body in terms of total number of genes); but it's estimated that only a small percentage of those may eventually be involved in producing the features of Down syndrome. Right now, the question of which genes do what is highly speculative. However, there are some suspects.

Genes that may have input into Down syndrome include:

Other genes that are also suspects include APP, GLUR5, S100B, TAM, PFKL, and a few others. Again, it is important to note that no gene has yet been fully linked to any feature associated with Down syndrome.

Other genes that are also suspects include APP, GLUR5, S100B, TAM, PFKL, and a few others. Again, it is important to note that no gene has yet been fully linked to any feature associated with Down syndrome.

One of the more notable aspects of Down syndrome is the wide variety of features and characteristics of people with trisomy 21: There is a wide range of mental retardation and developmental delay noted among children with Down syndrome. Some babies are born with heart defects and others aren't. Some children have associated illnesses such as epilepsy, hypothyroidism or celiac disease, and others don't. The first possible reason is the difference in the genes that are triplicated. As I mentioned above, genes can come in different alternate forms, called "alleles." The effect of overexpression of genes may depend on which allele is present in the person with trisomy 21. The second reason that might be involved is called "penetrance." If one allele causes a condition to be present in some people but not others, that is called "variable penetrance," and that appears to be what happens with trisomy 21: the alleles don't do the same thing to every person who has it. Both reasons may be why there is such variation in children and adults with Down syndrome.

Toward the Next Century

Researchers are busy in their attempts to map out the full structure of the chromosome, including the Human Genome Database. Because of the small size of the 21st chromosome and its association with Down syndrome, it is the second-most heavily mapped human chromosome. Research is focusing on trying to identify genes and their effects when overexpressed.

However, it would be a mistake to assume that the clinical features of Down syndrome are only due to a handful of genes being overexpressed. You can think of the overexpressed gene products interacting with a number of normal gene products, each product individualized by the person's unique genetic makeup, and thus being thrown "out of genetic balance." This would then make the person more susceptible to other genetic and environmental insults, leading to the features, diseases and conditions associated with Down syndrome. It is this complex arrangement that scientists will be addressing in the second century of Down syndrome research.

http://www.ds-health.com/trisomy.htm

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Directory of Down Syndrome Sites

NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

National Down Syndrome Congress
National Down Syndrome Society
International Mosaic Down Syndrome Assoc.

COMPREHENSIVE WEB SITES

(These offer a lot of information on varying topics)

Riverbend Down Syndrome Parent Support Group

Down Syndrome Information Network
Down Syndrome Educational Trust
Mosaic Down Syndrome on the Web
Downscity Homepage

U.S. LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS

Northeast:
Aim High! (Albany, NY)
Bringing Up Down Syndrome (Southern NJ)
Bucks County DS Interest Group (PA)
Connecticut Down Syndrome Congress
Down Syndrome Group of Western PA
Down Syndrome Parent Network of Eastern PA
Down Syndrome Parent Support Group of Genesee County (NY)
Down Syndrome Society of Rhode Island
Down Syndrome Assoc. of Delaware
Hudson Valley Down Syndrome Assoc. (NY)

KIIDS (Southern New Jersey)
Massachusetts DS Congress

Network 21 (Central NJ)
PODS - Montgomery County (Maryland)

Southern Maine DS Family Network
Trisomy 21 of Northern NY


Southeast:
DS Assoc. of Atlanta

Down Syndrome Assoc. of Fredericksburg, VA
Down Syndrome Assoc. of Hampton Roads (SE Virginia)
Down Syndrome Association of the Lowcountry Charleston, SC
Down Syndrome Assoc. of Memphis and Mid-South
Down Syndrome Assoc.of Middle Tennessee
Down Syndrome Assoc. of New Orleans
Down Syndrome Assoc. of Northern Virginia
DS Family and Friends (Little Rock, AR)
Down Syndrome of Louisville, KY
Gold Coast DS Org. of Broward County, FL
Gold Coast Org. of Palm Beach County, FL
Piedmont DS Support Network (N Carolina)
PODS Angels Support Group in Fort Lauderdale, FL
Triangle Down Syndrome Network (N Carolina)
Up With Downs (Shreveport, LA)

PC Downies (Panama City, FL)

Down Syndrome Assoc. of Roanoke, Virgina

Middle:
Down Syndrome Assoc. of Central Ohio
Down Syndrome Assoc. of Central Oklahoma
Down Syndrome Assoc. of Greater Cincinnati

Down Syndrome Assoc. of Greater St. Louis
Down Syndrome Association of Minnesota
Down Syndrome Assoc. of Northern Indiana
Down Syndrome Assoc. of West Michigan
Down Syndrome Assoc. of Wisconsin
Down Syndrome Development Counsel (N. Ill.)
F.E.D.S. (Sterling Heights, Mich)
Indiana DS Foundation (Indianapolis)
Kansas City Down Syndrome Guild Assoc.
Miami Valley Down Syndrome Assoc. (Dayton, OH)
National Assoc. for Down Syndrome (Chicago)
NDSS Nebraska (Omaha)
Oshkosh Down Syndrome Parent Support Group
Riverbend Down Syndrome Parent Support Group (SW Illinois)
SW Chicago Suburban Support Group
The Up Side of Downs of Greater Cleveland
Up With Down (Des Moines)
Wichita Downs Support Group

West & Southwest:
Down Syndrome Assoc. of Houston
Down Syndrome Assoc. of Los Angeles
Down Syndrome Association of Orange County (Cal.)
Down Syndrome Connection of Tucson
Down Syndrome Exchange, Southern Cal.
Down Syndrome Guild of Dallas

Down Syndrome Group of Salt Lake City
Down Syndrome League of the Greater Bay Area
DS Network (Phoenix, AZ)
Down Syndrome Organization of Southern Nevada
Down Syndrome Partnership of Tarrant County (Ft. Worth)
Down Syndrome Support Group of the High Desert
Down Syndrome Assoc of Ventura County (Cal.)
Sharing Down Syndrome Arizona
Southern Arizona Network for DS

Rocky Mountain/Northwest:
Colorado Springs Down Syndrome Assoc.
Down Syndrome Outreach of Whatcom County (Wash.)
Mile High Down Syndrome Assoc. (Denver area)
Upside! (Wash.)
Utah Down Syndrome Foundation


Intercontinental US:
Hawaii Down Syndrome Congress
Alaska Chapter of the NDSC

INTERNATIONAL SITES

Argentina:
     Asociacion Down de Avellaneda
     Asociación Síndrome de Down de la República Argentina
Australia:
     DS Society of South Australia
     DS Assoc. of New South Wales
     DS Assoc. of Victoria
     DS Assoc. of Western Australia
     Australian Capital Territory DS Assoc.
     DS Assoc. of Queensland

Austria: Infoplattform Down-Syndrom Österreich
Bahrain: Bahrain Down Syndrome Society
Brazil: Fundacao Sindrome de Down
Canada:
     Calgary DS Assoc.
     Canadian Down Syndrome Society
     DS Assoc. of Metropolitan Toronto
     Down Syndrome Research Foundation and Resource Centre
     Manitoba DS Society Home Page
     Newfoundland and Labrador DS Society
     Assoc. du Syndrome de Down de L'estrie (Quebec)
Czech Republic: Spolecnost Downova syndromu
Denmark:
     Forældre til mongolbørn i København
     Landsforening Downs Syndrom
Ecuador: Frutos-Integral Attention Center
Egypt: European Down Syndrome Assoc. (EDSA)
Finland: Downin oireyhtymä
France: F.A.I.T 21 et G.E.I.S.T 21
Germany:
     Down syndrome network Germany
     Deutschen Down-Syndrom InfoCenter
Honduras: Down Syndrome Foundation
Hong Kong: Down Syndrome Association
Iceland: Félag áhugafólks um Downs-heilkenni
India: Down's Syndrome Federation of India
Ireland:
     Down Syndrome Ireland - Main branch
     Down Syndrome Ireland - Mayo Branch
Italy:
     L'Associazione Italiana Persone Down
     Associazione Genitori Bambini Down
     Centro Bresciano Down
     Pordenone DS Assoc. (English)
     CE.N.TR.O. 21 -- Bologna
     Sindrome di Down
Japan: Japan Down Syndrome Network (English version)
Luxembourg: Trisomie 21 Lëtzebuerg a.s.b.l. (in French and German)
Malta: Down Syndrome Assoc. of Malta
Maylasia: Kiwanis Down Syndrome Centre under construction
Mexico:
     Resources in Mexico
     Instituto Irapuatense Down, A.C.
Netherlands: Stichting Down's Syndroom
New Zealand: New Zealand DS Assoc.
Nigeria: Down Syndrome Association of Nigeria
Norway:
     Downsnett Norge
     Marihøna
Phillipines:Down Syndrome Assoc. of the Philippines
Puerto Rico: Fundación Síndrome Down
Russia:
     Down Syndrome Assoc. of Russia
     Downside Up (this is a UK charity for Russian children with DS)
Singapore: Singapore Down Syndrome Assoc.
Slovakia: Spolocnost' Downovho syndrómu na Slovensku
South Africa: Down Syndrome South Africa
Spain:
     Down 21: Fundación Síndrome de Down
     Fundación Asindown (Valencia)
     Asociacion Sindrome de Down "Lejeune"
     Fundacio Catalana Sindrome de Down
     La Fundación Síndrome de Down de Cantabria
Sweden:
     Downs Syndrom Sverige
     Downs Syndrom - inte bara en extra kromosom
Switzerland:
     EDSA Schweiz
     Insieme - Vereinigung für Kinder mit Down-Syndrom
     Association Romande Trisomie 21
Turkey: Down sendromu Dayanisma Grubu
United Kingdom:
     UK Resources for Down Syndrome
     UK Down's Syndrome Assoc.
     UK Mosaic Down Syndrome Assoc.
     DS Assoc of Bristol
     Greater Manchester Branch of the DS Assoc.
     Down Syndrome Liverpool
     North East & Cumbria Branch
     Down's Syndrome Assoc. London Branch
     Oxfordshire Group of the DS Assoc.
     Scottish Down's Syndrome Assoc.
     Kingston Special Needs Project
     Inter Care Residential
Uruguay: La Asociacion Down del Uruguay

Other International, non-internet resources indexed at:
     http://www.nas.com/downsyn/org.html

ONLINE MAGAZINES AND NEWSLETTERS

Down Syndrome Quarterly (a multi-disciplinary journal)
Disability Solutions
Down Syndrome Amongst Us
Ohrenkuss, a German magazine by people with DS

MEDICAL RESOURCES

Medical Descriptions of DS
A description of Down Syndrome characteristics by Dr. Siegfried M. Pueschel
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) Page on DS (a medical description)

General Health Guidelines
Health Care Guidelines for People with DS
Spanish Edition of DSMIG Guidelines
Down Syndrome: Health Issues, from Dr. Len Leshin

Genetics of DS
Dr. Korenberg's Chromosome 21 Phenotype Mapping Project
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) Gene Map of chromosome 21
Risk and Recurrence of Down Syndrome by Dr. Paul Benke
What is Mosaic Down Syndrome? by Carol Strom
Animations of Meiosis and Fertilization

Specific Medical Topics in DS
Alzheimer's in DS by Dr. Ira Lott
Brain and Tissue Bank for Developmental Disorders
Center for Motor Behavior in Down Syndrome
Dental Care in Down Syndrome: A Review of the Literature by Sindoor Desai, DDS
Down Syndrome & Autistic-Spectrum Disorder
Down's Syndrome Vision Research Group (Cardiff Univ., UK)
Down's Heart Group
Growth Charts for Children with Down Syndrome
Hip Instability in Down Syndrome by Kim Voss
Menstrual Management in Down Syndrome
My Brother and Me: about Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's

OTHER RESOURCES FOR PARENTS

Breastfeeding a Child with Down Syndrome, 
Breastfeeding and Down Syndrome, by the La Leche organization
Communicating Partners, Dr. James McDonald's program
Diagnosis: Down Syndrome (a collection of stories for new parents of children with DS)
Down Syndrome - For New Parents (by The Paul Family)
Down Syndrome for Family and Friends
Love and Learn Tapes for Teaching Reading
National Down Syndrome Education and Research Institute
Parents' Resource - For new parents (by the Edwards Family)
Welcome to Holland, by Emily P. Kingsley
Welcoming New Babies, by Pam Wilson
MetLife's "Division of Estate Planning for Special Kids"
Creative Exchange Music Therapy
OT Exchange: a site for pediatric Occupational Therapists and parents who utilize OTs

NON-PROFIT FOUNDATIONS

The Possible Dream Foundation
Down Syndrome Research Online Advocacy Group
The Lindsey Rae Foundation
Trisomy 21 Foundation of Northern New York
Personal Ponies for Children with Disabilities
Annie Forts' Up Syndrome Fund, Inc.
The Karen Gaffney Foundation
Foundation 21 (Australia)

SCHOOLS / EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITIES / CAMPS

Camphill Soltane - Pennsylvania
Pathfinder Village - New York
Green Oaks School - Arlington, TX
Down Home Ranch - Austin, TX

OTHER NOTABLE SITES

Adult Artists with DS
Chris Burke Fan Club Website
Sujeet Desai: Pianist Extraordinaire
Michael Jurogue Johnson: a painter and illustrator with DS
Raymond Hu's Website: his story and paintings
Jane Cameron, Sunshine Girl

Internet Miscellany
DS International Swimming Organisation
Afraid to Look Down: about the play by Cullen Douglas, a father of a boy with DS
Adult Sibs of Individuals with MR/DD (New York City)
Down Syndrome Web Ring

The Marketplace
"Beautiful Faces" Calendars and Note Cards
Ups & Downs - An Anthology: seventeen individual stories written by families of children with DS
Dolly Downs (from Camp Venture)
Downi Creations (more dolls)
Sign Language Rebus Books for Children with Special Needs
TLC Kids Company: educational materials for children with disabilties
Special Fit Online: Clothes for adults with DS
C-wide: Dolphin Trips

Photographers of Children with Special Needs
Special Kids Photography
Treasured Image Photography, Phoenix

Homages, Memorials and Recollections
Mountain View Elementary School's DS Site

MAILING LISTS/NEWSGROUPS

http://www.ds-health.com/lists.htm

Last updated: 9/20/2004

webmaster@downsyndrome.com

http://www.downsyndrome.com/

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Abstracts and Studies:

Reading skills in children with Down syndrome: A meta-analytic review.

Nov 22, 2011

ScieVerse

Hematological disorders and leukemia in children with Down syndrome.

Nov 2011

Springer

A Unique Role of GATA1s in Down Syndrome Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia Biology and Therapy. 

2011

PubMedCentral

Myelosuppression and infectious complications in children with down syndrome and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. 

Nov 2011

Wiley OnLine Library

Exaggerated NMDA mediated LTD in a mouse model of Down syndrome and pharmacological rescuing by memantine. 

Nov 2011

LearningMemory

A volumetric magnetic resonance imaging study of brain structures in children with Down syndrome

Jul 2011 

TerMedia

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Codes and Classifications:

ICD-10 - Q90

ICD-9

2008 ICD-9-CM Diagnosis 758.0

Down's syndrome

  • A chromosomal dysgenesis syndrome resulting from a triplication or translocation of chromosome 21. Down syndrome occurs in approximately 1:700 live births. Abnormalities are variable from individual to individual and may include mental retardation, retarded growth, flat hypoplastic face with short nose, prominent epicanthic skin folds, small low-set ears with prominent antihelix, fissured and thickened tongue, laxness of joint ligaments, pelvic dysplasia, broad hands and feet, stubby fingers, transverse palmar crease, lenticular opacities and heart disease. Patients with Down syndrome have an estimated 10 to 30-fold increased risk for leukemia; most have symptoms of Alzheimer's disease by age 40. Also known as trisomy 21 syndrome. --2004
  • A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe MENTAL RETARDATION. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
  • A disorder caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 21 and characterized by mental retardation and distinguishing physical features.
  • The most frequently occurring mental retardation/multiple anomaly syndrome usually involving more than 100 individual defects. Typical facies with upslanting palpebral fissures is the characteristic feature of this syndrome (hence the offensive designations "mongoloid idiocy" and "mongolism"). A wide range other defects, such as congenital heart diseases, respiratory disorders, and leukemia, may be associated. Down syndrome patients who survive into late adulthood may develop Alzheimer syndrome.
  • 758.0 is a specific code that can be used to specify a diagnosis
  • 758.0 contains 30 index entries
  • View the ICD-9-CM Volume 1 758.* hierarchy

758.0 also known as:

  • Mongolism
  • Translocation Down's syndrome
  • Trisomy:
    • 21 or 22
    • G

OMIM 190685

eMedicine ped/615

MeSH D004314

MedlinePlus 000997

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Lymphedema People - Support Groups

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Children with Lymphedema

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Lipedema Lipodema Lipoedema

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Lymphatic Disorders Support Group @ Yahoo Groups

While we have a number of support groups for lymphedema... there is nothing out there for other lymphatic disorders. Because we have one of the most comprehensive information sites on all lymphatic disorders, I thought perhaps, it is time that one be offered.

DISCRIPTION

Information and support for rare and unusual disorders affecting the lymph system. Includes lymphangiomas, lymphatic malformations, telangiectasia, hennekam's syndrome, distichiasis, Figueroa
syndrome, ptosis syndrome, plus many more. Extensive database of information available through sister site Lymphedema People.

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/lymphaticdisorders/

Subscribe: lymphaticdisorders-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

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Lymphedema People New Wiki Pages

Have you seen our new “Wiki” pages yet?  Listed below are just a sample of the more than 140 pages now listed in our Wiki section. We are also working on hundred more.  Come and take a stroll! 

Lymphedema Glossary 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=glossary:listing 

Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema 

Arm Lymphedema  

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=arm_lymphedema 

Leg Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=leg_lymphedema 

Acute Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=acute_lymphedema 

The Lymphedema Diet 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=the_lymphedema_diet 

Exercises for Lymphedema  

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=exercises_for_lymphedema 

Diuretics are not for Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=diuretics_are_not_for_lymphedema 

Lymphedema People Online Support Groups 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_people_online_support_groups 

Lipedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lipedema 

Treatment 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=treatment 

Lymphedema and Pain Management 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_and_pain_management 

Manual Lymphatic Drainage (MLD) and Complex Decongestive Therapy (CDT)

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=manual_lymphatic_drainage_mld_complex_decongestive_therapy_cdt 

Infections Associated with Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=infections_associated_with_lymphedema 

How to Treat a Lymphedema Wound 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=how_to_treat_a_lymphedema_wound 

Fungal Infections Associated with Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=fungal_infections_associated_with_lymphedema 

Lymphedema in Children 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_in_children 

Lymphoscintigraphy 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphoscintigraphy 

Magnetic Resonance Imaging 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=magnetic_resonance_imaging 

Extraperitoneal para-aortic lymph node dissection (EPLND) 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=extraperitoneal_para-aortic_lymph_node_dissection_eplnd 

Axillary node biopsy 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=axillary_node_biopsy

Sentinel Node Biopsy 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=sentinel_node_biopsy

 Small Needle Biopsy - Fine Needle Aspiration 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=small_needle_biopsy 

Magnetic Resonance Imaging 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=magnetic_resonance_imaging 

Lymphedema Gene FOXC2

 http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_gene_foxc2

 Lymphedema Gene VEGFC

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_gene_vegfc

 Lymphedema Gene SOX18

 http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_gene_sox18

 Lymphedema and Pregnancy

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_and_pregnancy

Home page: Lymphedema People

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com

Page Updated: Nov. 28, 2011