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Prolidase deficiency

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Pat O'Connor

June 8, 2008

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Prolidase deficiency

Molecular defect in siblings with prolidase deficiency and absence or presence of clinical symptoms. A 0.8-kb deletion with breakpoints at the short, direct repeat in the PEPD gene and synthesis of abnormal messenger RNA and inactive polypeptide.
A Tanoue, F Endo, I Akaboshi, T Oono, J Arata, and I Matsuda
Department of Pediatrics, Kumamoto University Medical School, Japan.

Prolidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder with highly variable symptoms, including mental retardation, skin lesions, and abnormalities of collagenous tissues. In Japanese female siblings with polypeptide negative prolidase deficiency, and with different degrees of severity of skin lesions, we noted an abnormal mRNA with skipping of 192 bp sequence corresponding to exon 14 in lymphoblastoid cells taken from these patients. Transfection and expression analyses using the mutant prolidase cDNA revealed that a mutant protein translated from the abnormal mRNA had an Mr of 49,000 and was enzymatically inactive. A 774-bp deletion, including exon 14 was noted in the prolidase gene. The deletion had termini within short, direct repeats ranging in size of 7 bp (CCACCCT). The "slipped mispairing" mechanism may predominate in the generation of the deletion at this locus. This mutation caused a 192-bp in-frame deletion of prolidase mRNA and was inherited from the consanguineous parents. The same mutation caused a different degree of clinical phenotype of prolidase deficiency in this family, therefore factor(s) not related to the PEPD gene product also contribute to development of the clinical symptoms. Identification of mutations in the PEPD gene from subjects with prolidase deficiency provides further insight into the physiological role and structure-function relationship of this biologically important enzyme.

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=295128

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Prolidase Deficiency: A child with persistent lower extremity ulcerations

http://faoj.org/2011/04/01/prolidase-deficiency-a-child-with-persistent-lower-extremity-ulcerations/

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A photographic essay of prolidase deficiency. Oct 2011

http://journals.lww.com/clindysmorphol/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2011&issue=10000&article=00005&type=abstract

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Improved prolidase activity assay allowed enzyme kinetic characterization and faster prolidase deficiency diagnosis. Sept 2011

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0009898111003238

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Developmental cardiac hypertrophy in a mouse model of prolidase deficiency.

April 2011

Jung S, Silvius D, Nolan KA, Borchert GL, Millet YH, Phang JM, Gunn TM.

Source

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, characterized by thickened ventricular walls and reduced ventricular chamber volume, is a common cause of sudden cardiac death in young people. Most inherited forms result from mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins.

METHODS:

Histologic analysis identified embryonic cardiac hypertrophy in dark-like mutant mice. BrdU analysis was performed to measure proliferation and cardiomyocytes were isolated to measure cell size. The dark-like mutation was identified by positional cloning.

RESULTS:

The dark-like mutation causes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy due to loss-of-function of peptidase d (Pepd), which encodes prolidase, a cytosolic enzyme that recycles proline for collagen re-synthesis. Prolidase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disease in humans with a broad phenotypic spectrum not reported to include heart defects, but a conserved role forprolidase in heart development was confirmed by morpholino knockdown in zebrafish. We tested the hypothesis that loss ofprolidase function disrupts collagen-mediated integrin signaling and determined that the levels of several key integrin transducers were reduced in the hearts of dark-like mutant embryos.

CONCLUSIONS:

This work identifies dark-like mice as a model of prolidase deficiency that will be valuable for studying the role of proline metabolism in normal physiology and disease processes, and suggests that integrin signaling may regulate the onset of hypertrophic cardiac growth.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bdra.20789/abstract;jsessionid=4CB7A5F28E62FCA5B8355644F3FCBEAA.d03t02

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Biochemical basis of prolidase deficiency. Polypeptide and RNA phenotypes and the relation to clinical phenotypes.
F Endo, A Tanoue, A Kitano, J Arata, D M Danks, C M Lapière, Y Sei, S K Wadman, and I Matsuda
 
Department of Pediatrics, Kumamoto University Medical School, Japan.
 
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Cultured skin fibroblasts or lymphoblastoid cells from eight patients with clinical symptoms of prolidase deficiency were analyzed in terms of enzyme activity, presence of material crossreacting with specific antibodies, biosynthesis of the polypeptide, and mRNA corresponding to the enzyme. There are at least two enzymes that hydrolyze imidodipeptides in these cells and these two enzymes could be separated by an immunochemical procedure. The specific assay for prolidase showed that the enzyme activity was virtually absent in six cell strains and was markedly reduced in two (less than 3% of controls). The activities of the labile enzyme that did not immunoprecipitate with the anti-prolidase antibody were decreased in the cells (30-60% of controls). Cell strains with residual activities of prolidase had immunological polypeptides crossreacting with a Mr 56,000, similar to findings in the normal enzyme. The polypeptide biosynthesis in these cells and the controls was similar. Northern blot analyses revealed the presence of mRNA in the polypeptide-positive cells, yet it was absent in the polypeptide-negative cells. The substrate specificities analyzed in the partially purified enzymes from the polypeptide-positive cell strains differed, presumably due to different mutations. Thus, there seems to be a molecular heterogeneity in prolidase deficiency. There was no apparent relation between the clinical symptoms and the biochemical phenotypes, except that mental retardation was present in the polypeptide-negative patients. The activities of the labile enzyme may not be a major factor in modifying the clinical symptoms

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article or click on a page below to browse page by page.

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=296401

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Human erythrocyte prolidase and prolidase deficiency.

Endo F, Matsuda I, Ogata A, Tanaka S.

Biochemical studies on human prolidase (EC 3.4.13.9) and prolidase deficiency are described. The urine sample from a 32-year-old female with prolidase deficiency was examined. Diagnosis was based on clinical features and defects of prolidase in her erythrocytes. She excreted massive amounts of iminopeptides, where three major peptides were identified; aspartyl-proline, glutamyl-proline and glycyl-proline. The prolidase was purified approximately 10,000-fold from the normal human erythrocytes through an eight step procedure. The purified enzyme consisted of two identical subunits of which the molecular weight was calculated to be 55,000. The relative cleavage rates of the enzyme for glycyl-L-proline, L-alanyl-L-proline, L-leucyl-L-proline, L-prolyl-L-proline, and glycyl-hydroxy-L-proline were 100%, 53%, 27%, 31% and 2%, respectively. The relative substrate specificity of the enzyme offers a reasonable explantation for the presence of a higher level of urinary imidodipeptides in a patient with prolidase deficiency. An attempt at erythrocyte transfusion was performed, aimed at enzyme replacement therapy. After the transfusion (erythrocytes from 800 ml of whole blood), the prolidase activity of the peripheral erythrocyte was elevated to approximately 35% of the normal values and gradually decreased (half-life, 41 days). During this period urinary peptide-bound proline was monitored, but no significant change was observed.

Publication Types:

PMID: 7063276 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=7063276&dopt=Abstract

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Prolidase deficiency and systemic lupus erythematosus.

Shrinath M, Walter JH, Haeney M, Couriel JM, Lewis MA, Herrick AL.

Royal Manchester Children's Hospital.

Two children with prolidase deficiency, an inborn error of proline metabolism, developed clinical and immunological abnormalities consistent with a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The first child died from septicaemia, and SLE was only diagnosed during his terminal illness. As a result of this diagnosis his cousin, who was already known to have prolidase deficiency, was investigated further and a diagnosis of SLE confirmed. Following treatment with oral prednisolone her clinical condition has improved, although she has a persistently raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and florid facial rash. Both prolidase deficiency and SLE are associated with disturbances in immune function and have clinical features in common. It is likely that prolidase deficiency is a risk factor for the development of SLE. Additionally, patients with SLE should-where there is a family history or presentation in childhood-be specifically investigated for prolidase deficiency, since standard immunological or haematological investigations will not identify the characteristic biochemical abnormalities.

Publication Types:

PMID: 9196362 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=9196362&dopt=Abstract

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+170100 Links
PEPTIDASE D; PEPD

Alternative titles; symbols

PROLIDASE
IMIDODIPEPTIDASE
PROLIDASE DEFICIENCY, INCLUDEDGene map locus 19cen-q13.11

TEXT

See peptidase A (169800). Also called prolidase, imidodipeptidase, proline dipeptidase and aminoacyl-L-proline hydrolase, peptidase D (EC 3.4.13.9) specifically splits iminodipeptides with C-terminal proline or hydroxyproline, e.g., glycylproline. The enzyme prolinase (EC 3.4.13.8) splits iminodipeptides with N-terminal proline or hydroxyproline, e.g., prolylglycine. The 2 dipeptidases play an important role in collagen metabolism because of the high level of iminoacids in collagen (proline + hydroxyproline = 25%). Lewis and Harris (1969) identified a number of electrophoretic variants of peptidase D of red cells. Deficiency of prolidase has been described (see later); deficiency of prolinase is not known (Myara et al., 1984). 30 PubMed Neighbors

Peptidase D was assigned to chromosome 19 by McAlpine et al. (1976) and by Brown et al. (1978). Eiberg et al. (1983) showed that PEPD is probably linked to the C3-LE-DM-SE-LU linkage group, thus corroborating the assignment of this large group to chromosome 19. They found a lod score (male and female) for PEPD-Se of 2.14 at theta 0.05; a previous score of 0.94 at theta 0.20 was reported in other families. PEPD-C3 (male) gave positive scores. GPI and PEPD, which are on chromosome 19 in man, are on chromosome 9 of the Chinese hamster, and TPI, which is on chromosome 12 of man, is on Chinese hamster chromosome 8 (Siciliano et al., 1983). Linkage of peptidase D to myotonic dystrophy (O'Brien et al., 1983) proves the assignment of the Lutheran-secretor linkage group to chromosome 19 and provides regional assignment to 19pter-q13. Brook et al. (1985) gave a regionalization of 19p13.2-q13.2. Ball et al. (1985) found close linkage between PEPD and APOC2 (608083). 30 PubMed Neighbors

Lusis et al. (1986) used a reciprocal whole arm translocation between the long arm of chromosome 19 and the short arm of chromosome 1 to determine that the APOC1, APOC2, APOE and GPI loci are on the long arm and the LDLR, C3 and PEPD loci on the short arm. They isolated a single lambda phage carrying APOC1 and part of APOE. These genes are 6 kb apart and arranged tandemly. APOC2 and APOE were previously shown to be tightly linked. Friedrich et al. (1987) cited evidence from somatic cell hybrid studies using cells with various chromosome 19 rearrangements that the PEPD locus is unequivocally on the long arm of chromosome 19. Thus, PEPD is located at 19cen-q13.11. Using a panel of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids containing different regions of chromosome 19, Davis et al. (1987) also assigned PEPD to the long arm of chromosome 19. Endo et al. (1989) sequenced a cDNA that codes for the entire mature protein of prolidase. They assigned the gene to 19p13.2 by in situ hybridization. This conclusion is inconsistent with that previously reported, which places the locus in the proximal part of the long arm of chromosome 19. Tanoue et al. (1990) demonstrated that the prolidase gene comprises 15 exons and 14 introns and spans more than 130 kb. All of the splice donor and acceptor sites conform to the GT/AG rule. By nuclease S1 mapping and primer extension, they determined that the transcription initiation site is located 131 bases upstream from the initiation codon. A 'CAAT' box-like sequence was found 67 bases from the cap site, but there was no 'TATA' box-like sequence. There were 7 sets of sequences resembling the transcription factor Sp1 binding sites. 30 PubMed Neighbors

Powell et al. (1974) described a patient who excreted massive amounts of glycyl-L-proline and other di- and tri-peptides containing proline. Prolidase, the enzyme known to cleave the bond between the other amino acid and proline (which is carboxyl-terminal), was found to be absent or markedly decreased in the patient's red and white cells. The mother and maternal grandfather had intermediate levels. The father was not available for study. The parents were not known to be related. The proband was a 7-year-old white male with dry, cracked erythematous palms and soles and with obesity from an early age. Mild mental retardation and 'mild diffuse demineralization' of long bones were described. 30 PubMed Neighbors

Powell et al. (1975) studied 2 children with prolidase deficiency. Clinical features included chronic dermatitis, frequent infections, splenomegaly, and massive imidodipeptiduria. Powell et al. (1977) reported that chronic ear and sinus infections, chronic skin lesions, and splenomegaly were features. Sheffield et al. (1977) described an 11-year-old boy who was born of consanguineous parents and presented distinctive clinical features of recurrent skin ulceration, lymphedema, hepatosplenomegaly, and mild mental retardation. Massive amounts of dipeptides, most of which had proline or hydroxyproline as the carboxyl residue, were excreted in the urine. Glycylproline predominated. Prolidase deficiency was demonstrable in red cells, fibroblasts, and continuous lymphocyte cultures. 

Myara et al. (1984) stated that about 20 cases of prolidase deficiency had been reported. Dermatologic features, particularly severe leg ulcers, and mental retardation of variable severity were the main manifestations (Der Kaloustian et al., 1982). Recurrent infections might be due to a disturbance of complement component C1q, which contains a large amount of iminoacids. Most patients have an unusual facial appearance as well as splenomegaly. After gelatin ingestion, excretion of iminoacids in the urine is increased, indicating that iminoacid absorption in the intestine is not modified even though prolidase is deficient in the intestine. Freij et al. (1984) described affected brothers. 

Leoni et al. (1987) described prolidase deficiency in 2 sisters who suffered from recurrent leg ulcers, which first appeared in early childhood. Milligan et al. (1989) described a patient in whom chronic leg ulceration was due to prolidase deficiency. They added erosive cystitis as a feature of the disorder. Multiple affected sibs, parental consanguinity, and equal sex distribution indicate recessive inheritance. Endo et al. (1987) found absence of a subunit of prolidase in red cells in a patient with prolidase deficiency. 

Wysocki et al. (1988) described a 17-year-old girl with recurrent ulceration, initially covering most of her body but later in life confined mainly to her legs. Although she had an almost complete absence of prolidase in plasma and erythrocytes, this patient did not excrete hydroxyproline-containing dipeptides in her urine. One or more of the symptoms of prolidase deficiency may reflect a tissue deficiency of L-proline, which is not reclaimed in the absence of prolidase. Excretion of this amino acid, in bound form, can be as high as 20 to 30 mmol/day. Against the proposition that the failure of recovery of proline from iminodipeptides has a major role in the pathogenesis of prolidase deficiency is the fact that oral administration of L-proline does not relieve the dermatologic lesions. Attempts at enzyme replacement with normal matched erythrocytes have had no effect on iminodipeptiduria and this appears to be due to the fact that prolidase occurs in erythrocytes in an inactive form. Hechtman et al. (1988) found that brief exposure of intact erythrocytes to low concentrations of manganese ion activated intracellular prolidase without causing hemolysis. Hechtman et al. (1988) showed that erythrocytes so treated retained high levels of enzymatic activity for at least 2 weeks. 

Ohhashi et al. (1988) reported prolidase serum activities against 6 different substrates from 2 patients with prolidase deficiency, their mother, and controls. Complementation studies indicate that a single genetic locus is involved; however, Boright et al. (1988) demonstrated 3 classes of mutant alleles. In 6 prolidase-deficient cell strains, Boright et al. (1989) identified 3 types of mutations: half the cell lines showed a mutation that conferred a CRM-negative phenotype, while the other 3 showed CRM-positive mutations of 2 types, 1 mutation encoding an enlarged subunit (60 kD as contrasted with the normal 58-kD polypeptide) and the others associated with subunits of normal size. Complementation analysis indicated that the mutations mapped to the same locus. Normal subjects and obligate heterozygotes expressing CRM-negative mutations had thermostable prolidase activity at 50 degrees C in cell extracts, whereas heterozygotes expressing CRM-positive mutations had thermolabile activity under the same conditions, implying negative allelic complementation in the putative heterodimer. Alternative enzymatic activity not encoded at the prolidase locus was indicated by the occurrence of prolidase-like activity about 5% of normal in amount but with a preference for substrate different from normal, in cells homozygous (or compound) for CRM-negative mutations. Allelic heterogeneity at the major locus and the amount of alternative peptidase activity encoded elsewhere appear to be determinants of the associated and heterogeneous clinical phenotype. 

Endo et al. (1990) demonstrated great biochemical heterogeneity in prolidase deficiency. There was no apparent relation between the clinical symptoms and the biochemical phenotypes, except that mental retardation was present in the polypeptide-negative (CRM-negative) patients. Berardesca et al. (1992) reported the case of a 15-year-old boy with prolidase deficiency and marked urinary excretion of the iminodipeptide gly-pro. After blood transfusion, prolidase activity in erythrocytes against substrate glycyl-proline increased to 15.7% of donor activity and declined to 12% and 3.4% of normal activity after 8 and 45 days, respectively. Urinary iminodipeptide levels following transfusion remained unaltered. Transfusions of concentrated erythrocytes led to at least partial healing of ulcers of the skin but these recurred by 18 months after the last transfusion. 

Shrinath et al. (1997) described 2 children with prolidase deficiency who developed clinical and immunologic abnormalities consistent with a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; 152700). The first child died from septicemia, and SLE was diagnosed only during his terminal illness. As a result of this diagnosis, his cousin, who was already known to have prolidase deficiency, was investigated further and a diagnosis of SLE was confirmed. Following treatment with oral prednisolone her clinical condition improved, although she had a persistently raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and florid facial rash. Both prolidase deficiency and SLE are associated with disturbances in immune function and have clinical features in common. Prolidase deficiency may be a risk factor for SLE. Shrinath et al. (1997) suggested that patients with SLE should be specifically investigated for prolidase deficiency, especially where there is a family history of SLE or presentation of SLE in childhood, since standard immunologic or hematologic investigations will not identify the biochemical abnormalities characteristic of prolidase deficiency. 

Ledoux et al. (1994) described 4 mutant PEPD alleles associated with prolidase deficiency and Ledoux et al. (1996) reported 2 additional ones. Ledoux et al. (1996) developed a novel expression system to study mutant PEPD alleles by using COS-1 cells and demonstrated that 4 of these mutations were responsible for the enzyme deficiency. 

In 5 cases of prolidase deficiency, Forlino et al. (2002) provided molecular characterization of 3 mutations, all of which resulted in loss of prolidase activity. Long-term cultured fibroblasts from the patients were used to develop an in vitro model that allowed investigation of the affected cells. Light and electron microscopy revealed that prolidase-deficient cells were more round and branched out than controls, and had increased cytosolic vacuolization, interruptions of the plasma membrane, mitochondrial swelling, and modifications of the mitochondrial matrix and cristae. Forlino et al. (2002) interpreted these findings as evidence that absence of prolidase activity causes the activation of a necrosis-like cellular death, which could be responsible for the skin lesions typical of prolidase deficiency. 

Wang et al. (2006) reported 4 Geauga Amish children with prolidase deficiency, born of consanguineous parents and whose ancestry could be traced to common ascendants 7 or 8 generations back, in whom they identified a homozygous nonsense mutation in the PEPD gene (170100.0008). All 4 patients had massive imidodipeptiduria and clinically similar multisystem involvement, with typical facial features of prominent forehead, low nasal root, ocular hypertelorism, and proptosis. Splenomegaly and elevated immunoglobulins, especially of IgE, were observed in 3 patients, who also had asthma-like chronic reactive airway disease. There was neonatal jaundice and hepatomegaly in all 4 patients, and 3 had anemia, thrombocytopenia, and petechiae. Wang et al. (2006) stated that this was the first report of prolidase deficiency in the Amish as well as in the United States. 

Data on gene frequencies of allelic variants were tabulated by Roychoudhury and Nei (1988).

ALLELIC VARIANTS
(selected examples)

.0001 PROLIDASE DEFICIENCY [PEPD, ASP276ASN]

In 2 unrelated patients with polypeptide-positive (CRM-positive) prolidase deficiency, Tanoue et al. (1990) demonstrated a G-to-A substitution at nucleotide 826 in exon 12, resulting in replacement of aspartic acid by asparagine at amino acid residue 276. Both patients were homozygous for this mutation. 

.0002 PROLIDASE DEFICIENCY [PEPD, EX14DEL]

Tanoue et al. (1990) analyzed DNA from 3 patients with prolidase deficiency by Southern blot analysis after TaqI or BamHI digestion. A partial deletion of several hundred basepairs, eliminating exon 14, was found in a patient and her affected sister, who were the offspring of a consanguineous mating (Endo et al., 1990). The defect appeared to be homozygous. No major abnormality in gene structure was found in 2 other patients. Tanoue et al. (1991) gave further details: the 774-bp deletion had termini within short, direct repeats. 'Slipped mispairing' was thought to have been involved in the generation of the deletion. The mutation caused a 192-bp in-frame deletion of prolidase mRNA. The parents were consanguineous. The oldest sister, 25 years of age at the time of report, developed skin lesions at the age of 19 months and required specific treatment. Her homozygous sister had no prominent changes in the skin until age 18 years. Both were negative for immunologic crossreacting material, and there was no residual activity of prolidase in the fibroblasts. Both excreted massive amounts of imidodipeptide in the urine. Erythrocyte prolidase activities were about 50% of the control value in the first-cousin parents. 

0003 PROLIDASE DEFICIENCY [PEPD, ARG154GLN ]

In a prolidase deficiency individual asymptomatic at age 11 years, Ledoux et al. (1996) demonstrated compound heterozygosity for a G-to-A transition of nucleotide 551 in exon 8 (R184Q) and a G-to-A transition of nucleotide 833 in exon 123 (G278D; 170100.0004). To assess the biochemical phenotypes of these in 2 previously identified PEPD mutations (G448R; 170100.0005 and E452DEL; 170100.0006), they designed a transient-expression system for prolidase in COS-1 cells. The enzyme was expressed as a fusion protein carrying an N-terminal tag, allowing its immunologic discrimination from the endogenous enzyme with a monoclonal antibody. Expression of the R184Q mutation produced 7.4% of control enzymatic activity whereas the expression of the other 3 mutations produced inactive enzymes. Western analysis of the R184Q, G278D, and G448R prolidases revealed stable immunoreactive material whereas the E452DEL prolidase was not detectable. Pulse-chase metabolic labeling of cells followed by immunoprecipitation revealed that the E452DEL mutant protein was synthesized but had an increased rate of degradation. 

.0004 PROLIDASE DEFICIENCY [PEPD, GLY278ASP ]

See 170100.0003 and Ledoux et al. (1996).

.0005 PROLIDASE DEFICIENCY [PEPD, GLY448ARG ]

See 170100.0003 and Ledoux et al. (1996). This same mutation was identified in 2 brothers by Forlino et al. (2002), who found that it resulted from a G-to-A transition at nucleotide 1342.

.0006 PROLIDASE DEFICIENCY [PEPD, 3-BP DEL, GLU452DEL ]

See 170100.0003 and Ledoux et al. (1996).

.0007 PROLIDASE DEFICIENCY [PEPD, 3-BP DEL, 707TAC]

In 2 unrelated Portuguese patients with prolidase deficiency, Lupi et al. (2004) identified a homozygous 3-bp deletion in exon 10 of the PEPD gene, 707delTAC, resulting in deletion of a tyrosine at codon 231 (tyr231).

.0008 PROLIDASE DEFICIENCY [PEPD, ARG265TER ]

In 4 Geauga Amish children with prolidase deficiency, born of consanguineous parents and whose ancestry could be traced to common ascendants 7 or 8 generations back, Wang et al. (2006) identified homozygosity for a 793T-C transition in exon 11 of the PEPD gene, resulting in an arg265-to-ter (R265X) substitution. The authors stated that the phenotype in these patients appeared to be more severe than in previously reported patients, and noted that prolidase activity was nearly undetectable in these patients. 

SEE ALSO

Butterwork and Priestman (1986); Endo et al. (1987); Martiniuk et al. (1985); Scriver et al. (1983); Tanoue et al. (1990)

REFERENCES

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Linkage between the loci for peptidase D and apolipoprotein CII on chromosome 19. Ann. Hum. Genet. 49: 129-134, 1985.
PubMed ID : 3000274
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Blood transfusions in the therapy of a case of prolidase deficiency. Brit. J. Derm. 126: 193-195, 1992.
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A classification of rare alleles causing prolidase deficiency. (Abstract) Am. J. Hum. Genet. 43: A3 only, 1988.
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Localization of PEPD to the long arm of chromosome 19. Ann. Hum. Genet. 51: 195-199, 1987.
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Indication of linkage between the PEPD locus and the C3-LE-DM-SE-LU linkage group (and support for assignment of this linkage group to chromosome no. 19). (Abstract) Clin. Genet. 23: 228 only, 1983.
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Absence of the subunit of prolidase in a patient with prolidase deficiency. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 10 (suppl. 2): 317-318, 1987.
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Immunochemical studies of human prolidase with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies: absence of the subunit of prolidase in erythrocytes from a patient with prolidase deficiency. Pediat. Res. 22: 627-633, 1987.
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13. Endo, F.; Tanoue, A.; Kitano, A.; Arata, J.; Danks, D. M.; Lapiere, C. M.; Sei, Y.; Wadman, S. K.; Matsuda, I. :
Biochemical basis of prolidase deficiency: polypeptide acid RNA phenotypes and the relation to clinical phenotypes. J. Clin. Invest. 85: 162-169, 1990.
PubMed ID : 1688567
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Primary structure and gene localization of human prolidase. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 4476-4481, 1989.
PubMed ID : 2925654
15. Forlino, A.; Lupi, A.; Vaghi, P.; Cornaglia, A. I.; Calligaro, A.; Campari, E.; Cetta, G. :
Mutation analysis of five new patients affected by prolidase deficiency: the lack of enzyme activity causes necrosis-like cell death in cultured fibroblasts. Hum. Genet. 111: 314-322, 2002.
PubMed ID : 12384772
16. Freij, B. J.; Levy, H. L.; Dudin, G.; Mutasim, D.; Deeb, M.; Der Kaloustian, V. M. :
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PubMed ID : 6507502
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18. Hechtman, P.; Richter, A.; Corman, N.; Leong, Y.-M. :
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PubMed ID : 3205627
19. Ledoux, P.; Scriver, C.; Hechtman, P. :
Four novel PEPD alleles causing prolidase deficiency. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 54: 1014-1021, 1994.
PubMed ID : 8198124
20. Ledoux, P.; Scriver, C. R.; Hechtman, P. :
Expression and molecular analysis of mutations in prolidase deficiency. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 59: 1035-1039, 1996.
PubMed ID : 8900231
21. Leoni, A.; Cetta, G.; Tenni, R.; Pasquali-Ronchetti, I.; Bertolini, F.; Guerra, D.; Dyne, K.; Castellani, A. :
Prolidase deficiency in two siblings with chronic leg ulcerations: clinical, biochemical, and morphologic aspects. Arch. Derm. 123: 493-499, 1987.
PubMed ID : 3827281
22. Lewis, W. H. P.; Harris, H. :
Peptidase D (prolidase) variants in man. Ann. Hum. Genet. 32: 317-322, 1969.
PubMed ID : 5822321
23. Lupi, A.; De Riso, A.; Torre, S. D.; Rossi, A.; Campari, E.; Vilarinho, L.; Cetta, G.; Forlino, A. :
Characterization of a new PEPD allele causing prolidase deficiency in two unrelated patients: natural-occurrent mutations as a tool to investigate structure-function relationship. J. Hum. Genet. 49: 500-506, 2004.
PubMed ID : 15309682
24. Lusis, A. J.; Heinzmann, C.; Sparkes, R. S.; Scott, J.; Knott, T. J.; Geller, R.; Sparkes, M. C.; Mohandas, T. :
Regional mapping of human chromosome 19: organization of genes for plasma lipid transport (APOC1, -C2, and -E and LDLR) and the genes C3, PEPD, and GPI. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 83: 3929-3933, 1986.
PubMed ID : 3459164
25. Martiniuk, F.; Ellenbogen, A.; Hirschhorn, K.; Hirschhorn, R. :
Further regional localization of the genes for human acid alpha glucosidase (GAA), peptidase D (PEPD), and alpha mannosidase B (MANB) by somatic cell hybridization. Hum. Genet. 69: 109-111, 1985.
PubMed ID : 3882552
26. McAlpine, P. J.; Mohandas, T.; Ray, M.; Wang, H.; Hamerton, J. L. :
Assignment of the peptidase D gene locus (PEPD) to chromosome 19 in man. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 16: 204-205, 1976.
PubMed ID : 975880
27. Milligan, A.; Graham-Brown, R. A. C.; Burns, D. A.; Anderson, I. :
Prolidase deficiency: a case report and literature review. Brit. J. Derm. 121: 405-409, 1989.
PubMed ID : 2679858
28. Myara, I.; Charpentier, C.; Lemonnier, A. :
Prolidase and prolidase deficiency. Life Sci. 34: 1985-1998, 1984.
PubMed ID : 6727550
29. O'Brien, D. T.; Ball, S.; Sarfarazi, M.; Harper, P. S.; Robson, E. B. :
Genetic linkage between the loci for myotonic dystrophy and peptidase D. Ann. Hum. Genet. 47: 117-122, 1983.
PubMed ID : 6881909
30. Ohhashi, T.; Ohno, T.; Arata, J.; Kodama, H. :
Biochemical studies on prolidase in sera from control, patients with prolidase deficiency and their mother. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 11: 166-173, 1988.
PubMed ID : 3139929
31. Powell, G. F.; Kurosky, A.; Maniscalco, R. M. :
Prolidase deficiency: report of a second case with quantitation of the excessively excreted amino acids. J. Pediat. 91: 242-246, 1977.
PubMed ID : 874681
32. Powell, G. F.; Maniscalco, R. M.; Kurosky, A. :
Source of imidodipeptides in prolidase deficiency. (Abstract) Am. J. Hum. Genet. 27: 73A only, 1975.
33. Powell, G. F.; Rasco, M. A.; Maniscalco, R. M. :
A prolidase deficiency in man with iminopeptiduria. Metabolism 23: 505-513, 1974.
PubMed ID : 4828441
34. Roychoudhury, A. K.; Nei, M. :
Human Polymorphic Genes: World Distribution. New York: Oxford Univ. Press (pub.) 1988.
35. Scriver, C. R.; Smith, R. J.; Phang, J. M. :
Disorders of proline and hydroxyproline metabolism.In: Stanbury, J. B.; Wyngaarden, J. B.; Fredrickson, D. S.; Goldstein, J. L.; Brown, M. S. : Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease. New York: McGraw-Hill (pub.) (5th ed.) 1983. Pp. 360-381.
36. Sheffield, L. J.; Schlesinger, P.; Faull, K.; Halpern, B. J.; Schier, G. M.; Cotton, R. G. H.; Hammond, J.; Danks, D. M. :
Iminopeptiduria, recurrent skin ulcerations and edema in a boy with prolidase deficiency. J. Pediat. 91: 578-583, 1977.
PubMed ID : 908977
37. Shrinath, M.; Walter, J. H.; Haeney, M.; Couriel, J. M.; Lewis, M. A.; Herrick, A. L. :
Prolidase deficiency and systemic lupus erythematosus. Arch. Dis. Child. 76: 441-444, 1997.
PubMed ID : 9196362
38. Siciliano, M. J.; Stallings, R. L.; Adair, G. M.; Humphrey, R. M.; Siciliano, J. :
Provisional assignment of TPI, GPI, and PEPD to Chinese hamster autosomes 8 and 9: a cytogenetic basis for functional haploidy of an autosomal linkage group in CHO cells. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 35: 15-20, 1983.
PubMed ID : 6825466
39. Tanoue, A.; Endo, F.; Akaboshi, I.; Oono, T.; Arata, J.; Matsuda, I. :
Molecular defect in siblings with prolidase deficiency and absence or presence of clinical symptoms: a 0.8-kb deletion with breakpoints at the short, direct repeat in the PEPD gene and synthesis of abnormal messenger RNA and inactive polypeptide. J. Clin. Invest. 87: 1171-1176, 1991.
PubMed ID : 2010534
40. Tanoue, A.; Endo, F.; Kitano, A.; Matsuda, I. :
A single nucleotide change in the prolidase gene in fibroblasts from two patients with polypeptide positive prolidase deficiency: expression of the mutant enzyme in NIH 3T3 cells. J. Clin. Invest. 86: 351-355, 1990.
PubMed ID : 2365824
41. Tanoue, A.; Endo, F.; Matsuda, I. :
Structural organization of the gene for human prolidase (peptidase D) and demonstration of a partial gene deletion in a patient with prolidase deficiency. J. Biol. Chem. 265: 11306-11311, 1990.
PubMed ID : 1972707
42. Wang, H.; Kurien, B. T.; Lundgren, D.; Patel, N. C.; Kaufman, K. M.; Miller, D. L.; Porter, A. C.; D'Souza, A.; Nye, L.; Tumbush, J.; Hupertz, V.; Kerr, D. S.; Kurono, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Scofield, R. H. :
A nonsense mutation of PEPD in four Amish children with prolidase deficiency. Am. J. Med. Genet. 140A: 580-585, 2006.
43. Wysocki, S. J.; Hahnel, R.; Mahoney, T.; Wilson, R. G.; Panegyres, P. K. :
Prolidase deficiency: a patient without hydroxyproline-containing iminodipeptides in urine. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 11: 161-165, 1988.
PubMed ID : 3139928

CONTRIBUTORS

Marla J. F. O'Neill - updated : 6/20/2006
Victor A. McKusick - updated : 11/9/2004
Victor A. McKusick - updated : 11/13/2002
Victor A. McKusick - updated : 6/26/1997

CREATION DATE

Victor A. McKusick : 6/2/1986

EDIT HISTORY

wwang : 6/22/2006
terry : 6/20/2006

OMIM

==============

Abstracts and Studies:

-------------

Prolidase deficiency: it looks like systemic lupus erythematosus but it is not.

http://www.springerlink.com/content/b1xrj545k4gn1682/

......

Site-directed PEGylation as successful approach to improve the enzyme replacement in the case of prolidase. - June 2008

Elsevier

......

I

Identifying the structure of the active sites of human recombinant prolidase. May 2010.

http://www.springerlink.com/content/u03172l11t71844l/

......

Human prolidase and prolidase deficiency: an overview on the characterization of the enzyme involved in proline recycling and on the effects of its mutations. - Mar 2008

Springer Link

......

Extracellular matrix and HIF-1 signaling: the role of prolidase. - Mar 2008

Wiley InterScience

......

Systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease in a 6-year-old boy with prolidase deficiency. - Oct 2007

Springer Link

......

Chronic lung disease and cystic fibrosis phenotype in prolidase deficiency: a newly recognized association. - June 2007

Elsevier

......

Ulcus cruris associated with prolidase deficiency. - Dec 2006

PubMed

......

Effective therapy with a glycine-proline ointment in a patient with recurrent ulcers from prolidase deficiency - Sept-Oct 2006

Aran

==============

Join us as we work for lymphedema patients everywhere:

Advocates for Lymphedema

Dedicated to be an advocacy group for lymphedema patients. Working towards education, legal reform, changing insurance practices, promoting research, reaching for a cure.

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/AdvocatesforLymphedema/

Subscribe: AdvocatesforLymphedema-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

Pat O'Connor

Lymphedema People / Advocates for Lymphedema

===========================

For information about Lymphedema

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema\

For Information about Lymphedema Complications

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=complications_of_lymphedema

For Lymphedema Personal Stories

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/phpBB3/viewforum.php?f=3

For information about How to Treat a Lymphedema Wound

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=how_to_treat_a_lymphedema_wound

For information about Lymphedema Treatment 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=treatment

For information about Exercises for Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=exercises_for_lymphedema

For information on Infections Associated with Lymphedema

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=infections_associated_with_lymphedema

For information on Lymphedema in Children

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_in_children

Lymphedema Glossary

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=glossary:listing

===========================

Lymphedema People - Support Groups

-----------------------------------------------

Children with Lymphedema

The time has come for families, parents, caregivers to have a support group of their own. Support group for parents, families and caregivers of chilren with lymphedema. Sharing information on coping, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Sponsored by Lymphedema People.

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/childrenwithlymphedema/

Subscribe: childrenwithlymphedema-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

......................

Lipedema Lipodema Lipoedema

No matter how you spell it, this is another very little understood and totally frustrating conditions out there. This will be a support group for those suffering with lipedema/lipodema. A place for information, sharing experiences, exploring treatment options and coping.

Come join, be a part of the family!

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/lipedema_lipodema_lipoedema/?yguid=209645515

Subscribe: lipedema_lipodema_lipoedema-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

......................

MEN WITH LYMPHEDEMA

If you are a man with lymphedema; a man with a loved one with lymphedema who you are trying to help and understand come join us and discover what it is to be the master instead of the sufferer of lymphedema.

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/menwithlymphedema/

Subscribe: menwithlymphedema-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

......................

All About Lymphangiectasia

Support group for parents, patients, children who suffer from all forms of lymphangiectasia. This condition is caused by dilation of the lymphatics. It can affect the intestinal tract, lungs and other critical body areas.

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/allaboutlymphangiectasia/

Subscribe: allaboutlymphangiectasia-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

......................

Lymphatic Disorders Support Group @ Yahoo Groups

While we have a number of support groups for lymphedema... there is nothing out there for other lymphatic disorders. Because we have one of the most comprehensive information sites on all lymphatic disorders, I thought perhaps, it is time that one be offered.

DISCRIPTION

Information and support for rare and unusual disorders affecting the lymph system. Includes lymphangiomas, lymphatic malformations, telangiectasia, hennekam's syndrome, distichiasis, Figueroa
syndrome, ptosis syndrome, plus many more. Extensive database of information available through sister site Lymphedema People.

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/lymphaticdisorders/

Subscribe: lymphaticdisorders-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

===========================

Lymphedema People New Wiki Pages

Have you seen our new “Wiki” pages yet?  Listed below are just a sample of the more than 140 pages now listed in our Wiki section. We are also working on hundred more.  Come and take a stroll! 

Lymphedema Glossary 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=glossary:listing 

Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema 

Arm Lymphedema  

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=arm_lymphedema 

Leg Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=leg_lymphedema 

Acute Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=acute_lymphedema 

The Lymphedema Diet 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=the_lymphedema_diet 

Exercises for Lymphedema  

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=exercises_for_lymphedema 

Diuretics are not for Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=diuretics_are_not_for_lymphedema 

Lymphedema People Online Support Groups 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_people_online_support_groups 

Lipedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lipedema 

Treatment 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=treatment 

Lymphedema and Pain Management 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_and_pain_management 

Manual Lymphatic Drainage (MLD) and Complex Decongestive Therapy (CDT)

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=manual_lymphatic_drainage_mld_complex_decongestive_therapy_cdt 

Infections Associated with Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=infections_associated_with_lymphedema 

How to Treat a Lymphedema Wound 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=how_to_treat_a_lymphedema_wound 

Fungal Infections Associated with Lymphe dema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=fungal_infections_associated_with_lymphedema 

Lymphedema in Children 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_in_children 

Lymphoscintigraphy 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphoscintigraphy 

Magnetic Resonance Imaging 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=magnetic_resonance_imaging 

Extraperitoneal para-aortic lymph node dissection (EPLND) 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=extraperitoneal_para-aortic_lymph_node_dissection_eplnd 

Axillary node biopsy 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=axillary_node_biopsy

Sentinel Node Biopsy 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=sentinel_node_biopsy

Small Needle Biopsy - Fine Needle Aspiration 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=small_needle_biopsy 

Magnetic Resonance Imaging 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=magnetic_resonance_imaging 

Lymphedema Gene FOXC2

 http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_gene_foxc2

 Lymphedema Gene VEGFC

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_gene_vegfc

 Lymphedema Gene SOX18

 http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_gene_sox18

 Lymphedema and Pregnancy

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_and_pregnancy

Home page: Lymphedema People

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com

Page Updated: Jan. 9, 2012