Lymphedema People Logo

Skin Conditions and Skin Growths


Because of the compromised condition of a lymphovenous limb, we are often susceptible to a large number of skin complications.  These may include various skin growths such as skin tags, warts, dermatofibromas, lymphangiomas,and rashes, fungal infections.  This is in addition to the many infections associated with lymphedema  superficial  bacterial infections which include as impetigo, folliculitis, carbuncles, furuncles and boils and weeping wounds or sores.

With lymphedema, some types untreated skin conditions can lead to serious consequences including systemic infections (sepsis), gangrene, amputation and even death.  Good skin care and health is critical to our overall good health.


Skin Growths

Skin growths are accumulations of various types of cells that look different than the surrounding skin. They may be raised or flat and range in color from dark brown or black to flesh-colored to red. Skin growths may be present at birth or develop later.

When the growth is controlled and the cells do not spread to other parts of the body, the skin growth (tumor) is noncancerous (benign). When the growth is uncontrolled, the tumor is cancerous (malignant), and the cells invade normal tissue and even spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Noncancerous skin growths are often more of a cosmetic problem than anything else.

Doctors do not know what causes most noncancerous skin growths. Some growths, however, are known to be caused by viruses (for example, warts), systemic (bodywide) disease (for example, xanthelasmas or xanthomas caused by excess fats in the blood), and environmental factors (for example, moles and epidermal cysts stimulated by sunlight).


Dermatofibromas are small red-to-brown bumps (nodules) that result from an accumulation of collagen, which is a protein made by the cells (fibroblasts) that populate the soft tissue under the skin.

Dermatofibromas are common and usually appear as single firm bumps, often on the legs, particularly in women. Some people develop many dermatofibromas. Causes include trauma, insect bites, and cuts caused by shaving. Dermatofibromas are harmless and usually do not cause any symptoms, except for occasional itching. Usually, dermatofibromas are not treated unless they become bothersome or enlarge. A doctor can remove them with a scalpel.

Epidermal cysts

An epidermal cyst is a common slow-growing bump consisting of a thin sac of skinlike material containing a cheesy substance composed of skin secretions.

Epidermal cysts, often incorrectly referred to as sebaceous cysts, are flesh-colored and range from ½ to 2 inches across. They can appear anywhere but are most common on the scalp, back, and face. They tend to be firm and easy to move within the skin. Epidermal cysts are not painful unless they become infected or inflamed.

Large epidermal cysts are removed surgically after an anesthetic is injected to numb the area. The thin sac wall must be removed completely or the cyst will grow back. Small cysts may be injected with corticosteroids if they become inflamed. Infected cysts are treated with an antibiotic and cut open to drain. Tiny cysts that are bothersome can be burned out with an electric needle.

Because sunlight may stimulate growth of epidermal cysts, fair-skinned people are advised to stay out of the sun and to use protective clothing and sunscreen.



Dermoid cyst

A benign tumor which is made up of hairs, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands. Some internal dermoid tumors may even contain cartilage, bone fragments, and teeth. Dermoid cysts may be removed surgically for cosmetic reasons.



Smooth, firm, raised, fibrous growths on the skin that form in wound sites. Keloids are more common in African-Americans.

Keloids respond poorly to most treatment approaches. Injections of corticosteroid drugs may help to flatten the keloids. Other treatment approaches may include surgery or silicone patches to further flatten the keloids.



Round, flesh-colored growths that have a crater that contains a pasty material. These growths tend to appear on the face, forearm, or back of the hand. They usually disappear after a couple of months, but may leave scars.

Treatment usually includes a skin biopsy to rule out skin cancer. Other treatment may include surgical removal and/or injections of corticosteroids or fluorouracil.



Round or oval lumps under the skin caused by fatty deposits. Lipomas are more common in women and tend to appear on the forearms, torso, and back of the neck.

Lipomas are generally harmless, but if the lipoma changes shape, your physician may perform a biopsy. Treatment may include removal by surgery, if the lipoma bothers the child.


Moles (nevi)

Small skin marks caused by pigment-producing cells in the skin. Moles can be flat or raised, smooth or rough, and some contain hair. Most moles are dark brown or black, but some are skin-colored or yellowish. Moles can change over time and often respond to hormonal changes.

Most moles are benign and no treatment is necessary. Some benign moles may develop into skin cancer (melanoma). See below for signs.


Moles - atypical (dysplastic nevi)

Larger than normal moles (more than a half inch across), atypical moles are not always round. Atypical moles can be tan to dark brown, on a pink background. These types of moles may occur anywhere on the body. 

Treatment may include removal of any atypical mole that changes in color, shape and/or diameter. In addition, people with atypical moles should avoid sun exposure, since sunlight may accelerate changes in atypical moles. Persons with atypical moles should consult a physician with any changes that may indicate skin cancer.


Pyogenic granulomas

Red, brown, or bluish-black, raised marks caused by excessive growth of capillaries (small blood vessels) and swelling. Pyogenic granulomas usually form after an injury to the skin.

Some pyogenic granulomas disappear without treatment. Sometimes a biopsy is necessary to rule out cancer. Treatment may include surgical removal.


Seborrheic keratoses

Flesh-colored, brown, or black wart-like spots. More common in middle-aged and older people, seborrheic keratoses may be round or oval and look like they are "stuck" on the skin.

Usually, no treatment is necessary. If the spots are irritated, or the patient wants them removed for cosmetic reasons, treatment may include freezing the area with liquid nitrogen or surgery.


Skin Tags (Acrochordons), Wart-like growths, Cutaneous skin tags

A small tag of skin that may have a stalk (a peduncle). Skin tags may appear on the skin almost anywhere although the favorite locales are the eyelids, neck, armpits (axillae), upper chest, and groin.

Skin tags are very common soft harmless lesions that appear to hang off the skin. They are also described as:

Treatment generally consists of removing with scissors, freezing (using liquid nitrogen), and burning (using medical electric cautery at the physician's office). 

While skin tags can occur anywhere, with lymphedema the more common place for them is around or in the skin "folds" that many patients get from the swelling.


Skin Tags


Cutaneous skin tags


Skin Tags (Acrochordons)


Diagnostic images:

DermNet NZ




Dermatitis, stasis

I. Definition:

Stasis dermatitis is a rash of the lower legs which is due to poor return of blood to the heart. Usually the inner lower leg is more involved than the outer lower leg. 

II. Causes:

III. Treatment:

Other Names:

Signs and Symptoms

Stasis dermatitis can begin so slowly that it is barely noticeable or so rapidly that it seems to develop overnight. Signs and symptoms include:

Risk Factors

The risk of developing stasis dermatitis increases with advancing age and the following:

People who develop stasis dermatitis have an increased risk of developing other medical conditions, including contact dermatitis (a common type of eczema) and cellulitis (a skin infection that extends deeper than the surface of the skin).

Stasis dermatitis often is a long-term condition that requires care even when the skin clears.

How Diagnosed
Diagnosis begins with a complete medical history and visual examination of the skin. The following tests may be ordered because another skin condition can be present and effective treatment includes improving the circulation in the lower legs:

Getting signs and symptoms under control requires that the patient follow a comprehensive treatment plan that may involve:

Once the signs and symptoms have cleared, the patient may require lifelong preventive maintenance that includes:

Skin Care Physicians


Dermatitis, stasis



Scott Norton, M.D., LTC, MC, USA


Subjects covered in this lecture include common cutaneous infections and inflammatory skin diseases. The format of this lecture will be to present a clinical image of the disease, a view of the histopathology, and a brief discussion of diagnosis and  treatment. Try to integrate the clinical presentation with the histopathologic features – this is called a clinicopathologic correlation or CPC. 

Three general areas will be covered: common cutaneous infections (bacterial, viral, and fungal); common papulosquamous diseases; and eczema or dermatitis. 


We categorize pyodermas on the depth of invasion of the skin and by the causative organism. Impetigo remains the most superficial running through necrotizing fasciitis as the deepest pyoderma. These bacterial skin infections are caused most commonly by the pyogenic bacteria, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus, specifically Group A Strep and Staph. aureus. Some lesions, such as folliculitis and furuncles, are most commonly caused by Staph. 


Impetigo is an acute superficial pyoderma which heals without scar formation.  It is the most common bacterial infection of the skin in childhood.  Adults are sometimes affected, particularly athletes, military personnel, and those in institutions.  Minor trauma, especially from insect bites, as well as poor hygiene and a warm, humid climate, all predispose to this infection 

There are two clinical forms of impetigo: a common vesicuopustular type, and a bullous variant, which is less frequent.  Recent studies have shown that Staphylococcus aureus is now the usual organism isolated from common impetigo, which in the past was caused mostly by group a β-hemolytic Streptococcus (sometimes with Staph aureus as a secondary invader).  The bullous form has always been related exclusively to Staph aureus, usually of phage group II. Staph scalded skin syndrome is also a toxin-mediated condition, with separation of the superficial stratum corneum from the lower epidermis. 

Clinically impetigo appears as grouped small flaccid blisters and honey-colored crusting, usually on exposed areas of the head, neck and extremities. Bullous impetigo characteristically consists of round (circinate) blisters, which, when ruptured, leave a weeping crusted plaque with a collarette of scale. This is most common in infants and children. 

Histologically impetigo appears as epidermal vesiculobullous lesions with a very superficial separation at or below the granular layer. Subcorneal collections of neutrophils (pus) are seen in bullous impetigo.


Ecthyma is a deeper pyoderma then impetigo and much less common.  It has a predilection for the extremities of children, often at sites of minor trauma or insect bites, which allow entry of the causative bacteria.  Group A Streptococci, particularly Strep pyogenes, are usually implicated although Staph aureus is sometimes isolated as well.  The lesions, sometimes multiple, consist of a dark crust adherent to a shallow ulcer and surrounded by rim of erythema.  Scarring usually results when the lesions heal. 

Clinically ecthyma appears as thick, crusted lesion, most commonly on the anterior shins. Insect bites, scabies, or minor scratches that become bacterially infected may progress to become ecthyma. If the crust is removed (naturally or mechanically), there is a small, saucer-shaped ulceration. Ecthyma will scar because it disrupts the dermal collagen

Histologically ecthyma appears as an epidermal ulcer with deep dermal inflammation, neutrophils, and microabscesses. 

Cellulitis and erysipelas

Cellulitis is the diffuse inflammation of the connective tissue of the skin and deeper soft tissues.  It is deeper than impetigo and some cases of ecthyma, although.  Clinically, cellulitis present as an expanding area of erythema, which is usually and edematous, warm, and tender.  Necrosis sometimes supervenes.  The past, these infections were usually caused by b-hemolytic streptococci or Staph aureus.  A wide range of organisms is now implicated in cellulitis 

Erysipelas is a distinctive type of cellulitis that has an elevated border and spreads rapidly.  Vesiculation may develop, particularly at the edge of the lesion.  The condition occurs particularly on the lower extremities, and less commonly on the face.  Underlying diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, or lymphedema may be present.  The causative Group A b-streptococci or other organisms gain entry through superficial abrasions.  Bacteremia is common. 

            Clinically erysipelas appears as a large warm red plaque area with characteristic raised or indurated border. It occurs most frequently on the face and is associated with fever, malaise, chills, headache, and neutrophilia. Erysipelas and cellulitis are fairly similar although erysipelas typically is more elevated due to involvement of superficial lymphatics. 

Histologically erysipelas shows marked edema of dermis, dilation of blood vessels and lymphatics, and diffuse infiltration with neutrophils. Bacteria are sometimes seen within dilated lymphatics 

Necrotizing fasciitis

Necrotizing fasciitis (AKA the flesh-eating bacterial disease) is a deep form of cellulitis that rapidly progresses to gangrene and necrosis of several layers of tissue, including the overlying skin, and occasionally including muscle. It often starts at sites of minor trauma such as a laceration, surgical wound, or puncture wound. Serosanguinous blisters may develop, constitutional symptoms are present, and mortality may be high. It often occurs in somewhat debilitated patients (e.g., diabetics or alcoholics) although the majority of cases are in otherwise healthy persons. 

Histologically necrotizing fasciitis shows prominent inflammation in and around cutaneous arteries with fibrinoid necrosis and fibrin thrombi. There is dermal necrosis that extends along fascial planes accompanied by infiltration with many inflammatory cells (especially neutrophils), and large numbers of clumped gram-positive bacteria in the dermis. 


Clinically a pustule is a red papule at the opening of a hair follicle and often has a white head (collection of pus). Histologically it shows a necrotic hair follicle surrounded by neutrophils, often accompanied by bacteria. 

Furuncle (AKA boil) is a painful, red perifollicular nodule with formation of central pustule. When the pustule contains multiple heads (because it connects furuncles of several adjacent hair follicles), it is called a carbuncle. Histologically a furuncle shows a deep follicular lesion with perifollicular necrosis and many neutrophils and lymphocytes. 

Abscess is.a deep-seated inflammation with erythema, pain and possible fluctuance

Histologically an abscess shows inflammation and necrosis with neutrophils and lymphocytes extending into the dermis and subcutaneous tissues 

Laboratory diagnosis

1. Gram stain

            2. Culture

3. Tissue gram stain (Brown & Brenn; Brown & Hopp) 


1.      Antibiotics

Topical, oral, parenteral

2.      Anti-infective dyes (e.g., gentian violet)

3.      Necrotizing fasciitis: surgical debridement + IV antibiotics   

Other Bacterial  Infections:

Cat Scratch Disease - Bartonella henselae Infection






Candida albicans is the most frequent species of Candida implicated in human infections.  These range relatively trivial superficial infections to fill disseminate disease.  C. albicans is a normal inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract and is found in the mouths of about 40 percent of normal individuals.  It is sometimes isolated from the skin surface, but it is not a usual constituent of the skin flora.  There are many factors that predispose to clinical infection.  These include pregnancy, the neonatal period, immunological or endocrine dysfunction, antibiotic therapy, and immunocompromised or debilitated states.  Local factors such as increased skin moisture and heat also play a role. 

Superficial candidiasis appears as red patches and plaques surmounted by pustules, and crusting. Often there are red satellite pustules surrounding the primary area. Candidiasis is most commonly seen in mucocutaneous areas such as the mouth (thrush), perineal region (candida diaper dermatitis), and intertriginous areas (candida intertrigo).  A number of clinical variants of candidiasis occur: acute superficial candidiasis, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, systemic or disseminated candidiasis, and neonatal candidiasis.  Oral, periungual (paronychial), and genital candidiasis may also be included. 

            Histologically subcorneal pustule with neutrophils, candidal organisms may be seen in the stratum corneum 

Laboratory diagnosis

1. KOH examination: pseudohyphae

2. Culture 


1. Imidazole antifungals – topical or systemic

2. Amphotericin B (for systemic disease) 


The dermatophytes are a group of related filamentous fungi that have the ability to invade and colonize the keratinized tissues of man and animals.  Infections caused by these fungi, which account for about five percent of dermatologic consultations, are known as dermatophytosis, ringworm, or tinea.  The clinical appearances are quite variable and depend on a number of factors, which include: species the fungus, site of infection, immunological status of the patient, and the prior treatment attempts (e.g. topical antifungals, topical steroids.  The usual appearance on labor skin is a red, annular, centrifugally growing lesion, with peripheral scale and exclamation and central clearing.  Broken hairs and second nails occur with infections involving these structures. 

            Tinea corporis, capitis, cruris, pedis, manuum and faciale: annular, erythematous, and scaly plaques. May also see non-inflammatory scaling, erythematous papules or pustules. A type of inflammatory tinea capitis is called kerion – boggy, inflamed, tender, crusted plaque with pustules. Another variant is Majocchi’s granuloma: nodular perifolliculitis caused by fungal infection. Red, raised, crusted, boggy nodule, usually on the shins or wrists. 

Histologically  May be able to see the dermatophyte in the stratum corneum, but best seen with fungal stain (PAS). With tinea capitis, the fungal elements can often be seen within (more common) or around the hair shafts. 

Etiologic agents

1. Trichophyton spp. (e.g., T. tonsurans, T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes)

2. Epidermophyton floccosum (does not cause tinea capitis)

3. Microsporum spp. (e.g., M. canis


1. KOH examination; calcifluor fluorescence microscopy

2. Culture

3. Biopsy 

D. Treatment

1. Topical and systemic imidazoles or triazoles

2. Griseofulvin 


Herpes simplex types I and II are double-stranded DNA viruses in the Herpesviridae (along with VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6, and HHV-8). 

Primary Infection/Recurrent disease: grouped vesicles on erythematous base, usually localized, but may be generalized in immunocompromised persons. The primary infection may cover a larger surface area and is often accompanied by constitutional symptoms. Immunocompromised host may have variant presentations, such as ulcerative, vegetative, or verrucous lesions. 

Histologically lesions of HSV show ballooning degeneration of epidermal cells with epidermal necrosis (ulcerations) or hyperkeratosis (vegetative, verrucous lesions).  Multinucleate giant cells, margination of nuclear chromatin, neutrophilic infiltrate. 


1.   Tzanck smear (multinucleated giant cells)

2.      Direct fluorescent antibody test (DFA)

3.      clinical

4.      Viral culture

5.      biopsy 


1. Acyclovir, Valacyclovir

2. Gancyclovir

3. Foscarnet 


Varicella or chickenpox is an acute systemic viral illness, usually of children, characterized by a pruritic generalized vesicular eruption and fever. It is caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) for which there is a vaccine. Herpes zoster is caused by the same virus as chickenpox, occuring in individuals with partial or waning immunity from a prior varicella infection.   

Herpes zoster/shingles: grouped blisters on erythematous base, in a dermatomal/unilateral distribution. A few lesions (up to 15-20) may fall outside of the dermatome, but if more than this, it may represent disseminated zoster. Zoster represents reactivation of latent virus in sensory ganglia.  The virus travels through the sensory nerves to reach the skin, where it replicates in the epidermal keratinocytes.  Clinically, zoster is an acute disease that occurs almost exclusively in adults.  The condition begins with pain in the area innervated by the affected sensory ganglia.  The skin in this area becomes red, and papules to develop.  These quickly transformed to vesicles and then pustules.  Crusts then form and later healing takes place.  Chronic hyperkeratotic and verrucous lesions may occur in immunocompromised patients.  Sometimes there is residual scarring, particularly if there has been secondary bacterial infection of the vesicles.  The ganglia most usually involves are those of the lumbar and thoracic nerves.  Ocular damage may result when the ophthalmic division of a trigeminal nerve is involved. 

Histologically, VZV infections appear the same as Herpes Simplex. 


            1. Clinical

2. Tzanck smear (multinucleated giant cells)

3. Direct fluorescent antibody test (DFA)

4. Viral culture


            1. No intervention

2. Acyclovir, Valacyclovir

            3. supportive measures: pain relief, antipruritics,

            4. infection control 


Molluscum contagiosum occurs as a solitary or multiple dome-shaped, umbilicated, waxy or pearly papules with a predilection for flexural areas of children and adolescents.  Sexual transmission may occur and is often indicated by the appearance of molluscum on the pubic arch.  Papules range from 2 to 8 mm in diameter, although solitary lesions may be slightly larger.  Spontaneous regression often occurs within a year, although more persistent lesions are encountered.  Extensive lesions can occur in immunocompromised patients, particularly those with AIDS. 


Eczema and dermatitis are synonymous but non-specific terms that encompass inflammatory eruptions that are red, scaly, vesicular, and pruritic. There are many types of eczema including allergic contact, atopic, nummular, seborrheic, dyshidrotic, stasis, irritant contact, and associated with infections. 

Atopic Dermatitis: eczema. Intensely itchy, chronic disease of the skin. Most commonly one sees flexural distribution with erythema, scaling, lichenification. With acute flares, there will be increased redness, scaling, yellow crusts (impetiginization). 

Seborrheic Dermatitis: seen primarily in infants and post-pubertal children and adults. Greasy, dull red or yellowish scale in the seborrheic areas. 

Dyshidrotic eczema (pomphylox): itchy, vesicular eruption of the palms, soles and digits. Deep seated nature of the vesicles may give them the appearance of Atapioca pudding. 

Nummular dermatitis: multiple round, coin-shaped plaques with scaling and vesiculation. May be associated with atopic dermatitis, very dry skin (xerosis), and irritants 

Stasis dermatitis: impaired venous return from the lower limb, with resultant irritation, dry skin, and pigmentary changes. Usually seen on the medial aspect of the leg and ankle. 

Allergic contact dermatitis: erythematous plaques with micro- and macrovesicles and serous crusting. Caused by an immune-mediated reaction to environmental/topical allergens. Frequent offenders include plants (poison ivy), metals (nickel), fragrances.

Histologically for all the above conditions, the histologic appearance may vary, depending on the chronicity of the condition. 

Acute allergic contact dermatitis is a model for other eczemas. Histologically we see an epidermal intercellular edema (spongiosis) with micro- or macro-vesicles. There is a superficial dermal lymphocytic infiltrate with some migration of inflammatory cells into the epidermis (exocytosis).          

Laboratory diagnosis

1. Biopsy

2. Patch testing (allergic contact dermatitis) 

Treatment: varies by disease: often includes emollient creams and topical steroids as well as avoidance of inciting activities



Rhett J. Drugge, MD


Allergic Skin Conditions


Freckles, Skin Tags, Benign Lentigines, and Seborrheic Keratoses


National Skin Center


Skin Conditions: 8 Different Types of Psoriasis  Common Skin Rashes


Common Skin Rashes


Other related Skin Conditions:

Warts and Verrucas



Acroangiodermatitis associated with Lymphedema

Lymphomatoid Papulosis

Papillomatosis cutis carcinoides

Cutis Marmorata and Lymphedema

Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa - Skin Plaque and Nodules


Join us as we work for lymphedema patients everywehere:

Advocates for Lymphedema

Dedicated to be an advocacy group for lymphedema patients. Working towards education, legal reform, changing insurance practices, promoting research, reaching for a cure.


Pat O'Connor

Lymphedema People / Advocates for Lymphedema


For information about Lymphedema\

For Information about Lymphedema Complications

For Lymphedema Personal Stories

For information about How to Treat a Lymphedema Wound

For information about Lymphedema Treatment

For information about Exercises for Lymphedema

For information on Infections Associated with Lymphedema

For information on Lymphedema in Children

Lymphedema Glossary


Lymphedema People - Support Groups


Children with Lymphedema

The time has come for families, parents, caregivers to have a support group of their own. Support group for parents, families and caregivers of chilren with lymphedema. Sharing information on coping, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Sponsored by Lymphedema People.



Lipedema Lipodema Lipoedema

No matter how you spell it, this is another very little understood and totally frustrating conditions out there. This will be a support group for those suffering with lipedema/lipodema. A place for information, sharing experiences, exploring treatment options and coping.

Come join, be a part of the family!




If you are a man with lymphedema; a man with a loved one with lymphedema who you are trying to help and understand come join us and discover what it is to be the master instead of the sufferer of lymphedema.



All About Lymphangiectasia

Support group for parents, patients, children who suffer from all forms of lymphangiectasia. This condition is caused by dilation of the lymphatics. It can affect the intestinal tract, lungs and other critical body areas.



Lymphatic Disorders Support Group @ Yahoo Groups

While we have a number of support groups for lymphedema... there is nothing out there for other lymphatic disorders. Because we have one of the most comprehensive information sites on all lymphatic disorders, I thought perhaps, it is time that one be offered.


Information and support for rare and unusual disorders affecting the lymph system. Includes lymphangiomas, lymphatic malformations, telangiectasia, hennekam's syndrome, distichiasis, Figueroa
syndrome, ptosis syndrome, plus many more. Extensive database of information available through sister site Lymphedema People.



Lymphedema People New Wiki Pages

Have you seen our new “Wiki” pages yet?  Listed below are just a sample of the more than 140 pages now listed in our Wiki section. We are also working on hundred more.  Come and take a stroll! 

Lymphedema Glossary 


Arm Lymphedema 

Leg Lymphedema 

Acute Lymphedema 

The Lymphedema Diet 

Exercises for Lymphedema 

Diuretics are not for Lymphedema 

Lymphedema People Online Support Groups 



Lymphedema and Pain Management 

Manual Lymphatic Drainage (MLD) and Complex Decongestive Therapy (CDT) 

Infections Associated with Lymphedema 

How to Treat a Lymphedema Wound 

Fungal Infections Associated with Lymphedema 

Lymphedema in Children 


Magnetic Resonance Imaging 

Extraperitoneal para-aortic lymph node dissection (EPLND) 

Axillary node biopsy

Sentinel Node Biopsy

 Small Needle Biopsy - Fine Needle Aspiration 

Magnetic Resonance Imaging 

Lymphedema Gene FOXC2

 Lymphedema Gene VEGFC

 Lymphedema Gene SOX18

 Lymphedema and Pregnancy

Home page: Lymphedema People

Page Updated: Dec. 20, 2011