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LYMPHEDEMA KLINEFELTER SYNDROME

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Klinefelter Syndrome

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=klinefelter_syndrome

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Klinefelter Syndrome

This condition was first identified by Dr. Harry Klinefelter at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.  A report published he and his coworkers reported case studies on nine men who had enlarged breasts, sparse facial and body hair and an inability to produce sperm.

Now more appropriately referred to as XXY Male of XXY Male Syndrome, males born with this condition have an extra sex chromosome XXY instead of the usual  genotype XY.  It is associated with a 47XXY karyotype and statistically occurs in 1/500 newborns.

Clinical features

 Klinefelter is occasionally associated with lymphatic blockage or fetal hydrops and thus is included in a discussion of developmental disorders of the lymphatics.

Original symptoms included tall stature, long upper extremities, poor pubertal development, microorchidism, enlarged breasts, sparce facial and body hair, small testes and subsequent sterility.

Recent studies have expanded the original symptoms to include infertility, incomplete masculinization; feminine, or pear shaped, body and body hair distribution, decreased libido,  osteoporosis,  taurodontism, venous disease (which may include mitral valve prolapse, varicose veins and venous ulcers),  learning and emotional disorders, autoimmune disorders,  low energy and self esteem,  communication difficulties, especially with expressive language, frustration-based outbursts, motor skills issue and developmental delays.  Also, there is a 20 times increased risk for XXY males to develop breast cancer than non XXY males.

Treatment

For proper care and treatment early diagnosis is important. The treatment includes hormone therapy such as testosterone replacement. Other treatment aspects should include the psychosocial and emotional problems, needed treatment for physiological side affects and later on even genetic counseling.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION AND RESOURCES:

Klinefelter Syndrome

Author: Harold Chen, MD, MS, FAAP, FACMG, Chief, Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Perinatal Genetics, Louisiana State University Medical Center

http://www.emedicine.com/PED/topic1252.htm

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Klinefelter Syndrome?

Or is he XXY? There IS a difference!

A Parent's View

http://xxy.50megs.com/

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Klinefelter's Syndrome

Med Line Plus

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/klinefelterssyndrome.html  

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Klinefelter's syndrome presenting with leg ulcers.

De Morentin HM, Dodiuk-Gad RP, Brenner S.

Department of Dermatology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, 6 Weizmann Street, Tel Aviv 64239 Israel. derma@tasmc.health.gov.il

A 54-year-old man of Persian origin presented to our department with a 1-year history of ulcers on the right leg that had been unresponsive to numerous topical treatments, accompanied by lymphedema of the right leg. Medical history included hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, which had not been further investigated. He was treated for 20 years with testosterone IM once monthly, which he stopped a year before the current hospitalization for unclear reasons. The patient reported no congenital lymphedema. Physical examination revealed two deep skin ulcers (Figure 1) on the right leg measuring 10 cm in diameter with raised irregular inflammatory borders and a boggy, necrotic base discharging a purulent hemorrhagic exudate. Bilateral leg pitting edema and right lymphangitis with lymphadenitis were noted. He had low head hair implantment, sparse hair on the body and head, hyperpigmentation on both legs, onychodystrophia of the toenails (mainly the large toe and less prominent on the other toes), which was atrophic lichen-planus-like in appearance and needed no trimming (Figure 2), normal hand nails, oral thrush, and angular cheilitis. Other physical findings were gynecomastia, pectus excavatum, small and firm testicles, long extremities, asymmetrical goiter, systolic murmur 2/6 in left sternal border, and slow and inappropriate behavior. The patient's temperature on admission was 39 degrees C. Blood cultures were negative for bacterial growth. Results of laboratory investigations included hemoglobin (11.2 g/dL), hematocrit (26.8%), normal mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin volume, and red blood cell distribution width (16%). Blood smear showed spherocytes, slight hypochromia, anisocytosis, macrocytosis, and microcytosis. Blood chemistry values were taken for iron (4 micro g/dL [normal range 40-150 micro g/dL]), transferrin (193 mg/dL [normal range 220-400 mg/dL]), ferritin (1128 ng/mL [normal range 14-160 ng/mL]), transferrin saturation (1.5% [normal range 20%-55%]), serum folate (within normal limits), and vitamin B12 (within normal limits). Direct Coombs' test equaled positive 2 + IgG. All these values indicated anemia of chronic diseases combined with hemolytic anemia. Further blood work-up tested antinuclear antibody (positive <1:80 homogeneous pattern), rheumatoid factors (143 IU/mL [positive >8.5 IU/mL]), C-reactive protein (286 mg/L [normal range 0-5 mg/L]), anticardiolipin IgM antibody (9.0 monophosphoryl lipid U/mL [normal range 0-7.00 MPL U/mL]) and antithrombin III activity (135% [normal range 74%-114%]). Results of other blood tests were within normal limits or negative, including lupus anticoagulant, beta2 glycoprotein, anticardiolipin IgG Ab, anti-ss DNA Ab, C3, C4, anti-RO, anti-LA, anti-SC-70, anti-SM Ab, P-ANCA, C-ANCA, TSH, FT4, anti-T microsomal, antithyroglobulin, protein C activity, protein S free, cryoglobulins, serum immunoelectrophoresis, VDRL, hepatitis C antibodies, hepatitis B antigen, and human immunodeficiency virus. Endocrinological work-up examined luteinizing hormone (22.9 mIU/mL [normal range for adult men 0.8-6 mIU/mL]), follicle stimulating hormone (49.7 mIU/mL [normal range for adult men 1-11 mIU/mL]), testosterone (0.24 ng/mL [normal range for adult men 2.5-8.0 ng/mL]), bioavailable testosterone (0.02 ng/mL [normal range for adult men >0.6 ng/mL]), and percent bioavailable test (8.1% [normal value >20%]). These results indicate hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 was 6 U (normal value 5-20 U/mL). Karyotyping performed by G-banding technique revealed a 47 XXY karyotype, which is diagnostic of Klinefelter's syndrome. Doppler ultrasound of the leg ulcers disclosed partial thrombus in the distal right femoral vein. X-rays and bone scan displayed osteomyelitis along the right tibia. Histological examination of a 4-mm punch biopsy from the ulcer border revealed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, hypergranulosis, and mixed inflammatory infiltrate containing eosinophils compatible with chronic ulcer. Multiple vessels were seen, compatible with a healing process. Direct immunofluorescence of the biopsy revealed granular IgM in the dermo-epidermal junction. Indirect immunofluorescence was negative. Thyroid function tests showed normal thyroid stimulating hormone and free throxine4. Multinodular goiter was seen on thyroid scan and ultrasound. Thyroid fine needle aspiration was compatible with multinodular goiter (normal follicular cells, free colloid, macrophages with pigment). IV treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 1 g t.i.d. was administered for 2 weeks, with a decrease in temperature and normalization of the leukocyte level. Oral antibiotic treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was continued for 10 more days, followed by 25 days of ciprofloxacin for the osteomyelitis. Local treatment included saline soakings followed by application of Promogran (Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ) and Kaltostat (ConvaTec Ltd., a Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, New York, NY) with slight improvement. At the same time, the patient was treated with warfarin sodium due to deep vein thrombosis under international normalized ratio 2-3. The patient was treated with IM testosterone once monthly for 1 year, which resulted in a reduction in the diameter and depth of the leg ulcers (Figure 3). Blood tests were not performed for follow-up of the immune state.

PMID: 15365265 [PubMed - in process]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15365265&itool=iconabstr

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ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

Klinefelter Syndrome & Associates, Inc.
PO Box 119
Roseville, CA 95678-0119
Phone: 916.773.1449
Fax: 916.773.1449
E-mail: help@genetic.org
Web site: http://www.genetic.org/ks/ (Japenese version)
[Note: group name may change to X & Y Family Genetic Network and include XXX, and XXY and the multiple sex chromosome variants]
- Resources for families http://www.aaksis.org/
- Introductory video about XXY, by mother whose son has Klinefelter Syndrome
- The Even Exchange, Newsletter
American Association for Klinefelter Syndrome Information and Support (AAKSIS)

Klinefelter Syndrome Support Group Home Page, numerous links to other organizations and resources, created by an adult with Klinefelter Syndrome, regional groups, varients, international groups

International Groups:

Australia
 
Australian Klinefelter Support Group
4 Victoria Rd
Acquire Fields NEW 02564 AUSTRALIA
02-605-2837
 
Victoria Support Group
41 Jesmond Rd
Cordon, Victoria 03136 AUSTRALIA
03-9723-6148

Klinefelter Syndrome Support Group
P.O.Box 3
Glendenning Mail Center NEW 2761 AUSTRALIA
02-9628-4142

Canada

Canada Klinefelter Support Group
Apt. 3, 2867 Young St.
Toronto, ON. Canada M4N 2J5
416. 481.3171

England (United Kingdom)

Klinefelter's Syndrome Association
56 Little Yeldham Road
Little Yeldham, Halstead, Essex CO9 4QT
 
Klinefelter Organisation [formerly the Klinefelter's Syndrome Club UK (KSCUK)]
 
Belgium

Belgische vereniging voor het syndroom van Klinefelter http://www.klinefelter.be/cms/

Sweden and Denmark

Swedish Klinefelter Association (Svenska XXY& Klinefelterföreningen)

Other information:

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Advocates for Lymphedema

Dedicated to be an advocacy group for lymphedema patients. Working towards education, legal reform, changing insurance practices, promoting research, reaching for a cure.

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Pat O'Connor

Lymphedema People / Advocates for Lymphedema

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Lymphedema People - Support Groups

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Children with Lymphedema

The time has come for families, parents, caregivers to have a support group of their own. Support group for parents, families and caregivers of chilren with lymphedema. Sharing information on coping, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Sponsored by Lymphedema People.

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/childrenwithlymphedema/

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Lipedema Lipodema Lipoedema

No matter how you spell it, this is another very little understood and totally frustrating conditions out there. This will be a support group for those suffering with lipedema/lipodema. A place for information, sharing experiences, exploring treatment options and coping.

Come join, be a part of the family!

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/lipedema_lipodema_lipoedema/?yguid=209645515

Subscribe: lipedema_lipodema_lipoedema-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

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MEN WITH LYMPHEDEMA

If you are a man with lymphedema; a man with a loved one with lymphedema who you are trying to help and understand come join us and discover what it is to be the master instead of the sufferer of lymphedema.

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/menwithlymphedema/

Subscribe: menwithlymphedema-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

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All About Lymphangiectasia

Support group for parents, patients, children who suffer from all forms of lymphangiectasia. This condition is caused by dilation of the lymphatics. It can affect the intestinal tract, lungs and other critical body areas.

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/allaboutlymphangiectasia/

Subscribe: allaboutlymphangiectasia-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

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Lymphatic Disorders Support Group @ Yahoo Groups

While we have a number of support groups for lymphedema... there is nothing out there for other lymphatic disorders. Because we have one of the most comprehensive information sites on all lymphatic disorders, I thought perhaps, it is time that one be offered.

DISCRIPTION

Information and support for rare and unusual disorders affecting the lymph system. Includes lymphangiomas, lymphatic malformations, telangiectasia, hennekam's syndrome, distichiasis, Figueroa
syndrome, ptosis syndrome, plus many more. Extensive database of information available through sister site Lymphedema People.

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/lymphaticdisorders/

Subscribe: lymphaticdisorders-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

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Lymphedema People New Wiki Pages

Have you seen our new “Wiki” pages yet?  Listed below are just a sample of the more than 140 pages now listed in our Wiki section. We are also working on hundred more.  Come and take a stroll! 

Lymphedema Glossary 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=glossary:listing 

Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema 

Arm Lymphedema  

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=arm_lymphedema 

Leg Lymphedema 

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Acute Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=acute_lymphedema 

The Lymphedema Diet 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=the_lymphedema_diet 

Exercises for Lymphedema  

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=exercises_for_lymphedema 

Diuretics are not for Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=diuretics_are_not_for_lymphedema 

Lymphedema People Online Support Groups 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_people_online_support_groups 

Lipedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lipedema 

Treatment 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=treatment 

Lymphedema and Pain Management 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_and_pain_management 

Manual Lymphatic Drainage (MLD) and Complex Decongestive Therapy (CDT)

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=manual_lymphatic_drainage_mld_complex_decongestive_therapy_cdt 

Infections Associated with Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=infections_associated_with_lymphedema 

How to Treat a Lymphedema Wound 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=how_to_treat_a_lymphedema_wound 

Fungal Infections Associated with Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=fungal_infections_associated_with_lymphedema 

Lymphedema in Children 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_in_children 

Lymphoscintigraphy 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphoscintigraphy 

Magnetic Resonance Imaging 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=magnetic_resonance_imaging 

Extraperitoneal para-aortic lymph node dissection (EPLND) 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=extraperitoneal_para-aortic_lymph_node_dissection_eplnd 

Axillary node biopsy 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=axillary_node_biopsy

Sentinel Node Biopsy 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=sentinel_node_biopsy

 Small Needle Biopsy - Fine Needle Aspiration 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=small_needle_biopsy 

Magnetic Resonance Imaging 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=magnetic_resonance_imaging 

Lymphedema Gene FOXC2

 http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_gene_foxc2

 Lymphedema Gene VEGFC

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_gene_vegfc

 Lymphedema Gene SOX18

 http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_gene_sox18

 Lymphedema and Pregnancy

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_and_pregnancy

Home page: Lymphedema People

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Page Updated: Jan. 8, 2012