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Bacteria and Bacterial Infections

A Brief Overview and External Resources

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Bacteria and Bacterial Infections - Types of Bacteria

It is important to understand what bacteria is and the different types of bacteria there are. Not all antibiotics works on all bacteria. I highly recommend anyone with lymphedema being under the care of an infectious disease doctor. They have much more extensive training in diagnosing and treating bacterial infections than you family doctor may have.

Definition: Small one-celled microorganisms. A distinguishing characteristic is the lack of internal cell membranes. Some are round (cocci), rod-shaped (Bacili), spiral (spirochetes), or comma-shaped (vibrios). The nature, severity, treatment and outcome of any bacterial infection based on the species.

This page is intended to give the reader a basic understanding of exactly what bacteria are and to act as an information portal for more extensive study.

I have also included specific infection pages relating to lymphedema from our Lymphedema People website.  Also, listed below are links to the various related blogs we sponsor.

Pat O'Connor

Lymphedema People

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Basics about Bacteria

The small one-celled microorganisms of the class Schizomycetes. Some are round (cocci), rod-shaped (bacilli), spiral (spirochetes), or comma-shaped (vibrios). The nature, severity, and outcome of any infection caused by a bacterium depends on the species.

Five major groups of microorganisms are responsible for the majority of infections. They include protozoa and helminths, or worms—both of which are considered in Parasites and Parasitology—as well as bacteria and viruses. Bacteria and viruses often are discussed, along with fungi (the fifth major group), in the context of infection and infectious diseases. In the present context, however, we limit our inquiry to viruses and bacteria.

Bacteria are very small organisms, typically consisting of one cell. They are prokaryotes, a term referring to a type of cell that has no nucleus. In eukaryotic cells, such as those of plants and animals, the nucleus controls the cell's functions and contains its genes. Genes carry deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which determines the characteristics that are passed on from one generation to the next. The genetic material of bacteria is contained instead within a single, circular chain of DNA.

Members of kingdom Monera, which also includes blue-green algae (see Taxonomy), bacteria generally are classified into three groups based on their shape: spherical (coccus), rodlike (bacillus), or spiralor corkscrew-shaped (spirochete). Some bacteria also have a shape like that of a comma and are known as vibrio. Spirochetes, which are linked to such diseases as syphilis, sometimes are considered a separate type of creature; hence, Monera occasionally is defined as consisting of blue-green algae, bacteria, and spirochetes.

The cytoplasm (material in the cell interior) of all bacteria is enclosed within a cell membrane that itself is surrounded by a rigid cell wall. Bacteria produce a thick, jellylike material on the surface of the cell wall, and when that material forms a distinct outer layer, it is known as a capsule. Many rod, spiral, and comma-shaped bacteria have whiplike limbs, known as flagella, attached to the outside of their cells. They use these flagella for movement by waving them back and forth. Other bacteria move simply by wiggling the whole cell back and forth, whereas still others are unable to move at all.

Bacteria most commonly reproduce by fission, the process by which a single cell divides to produce two new cells. The process of fission may take anywhere from 15 minutes to 16 hours, depending on the type of bacterium. Several factors influence the rate at which bacterial growth occurs, the most important being moisture, temperature, and pH, or the relative acidity or alkalinity of the substance in which they are placed.

Bacterial preferences in all of these areas vary: for example, there are bacteria that live in hydrothermal vents, or cracks in the ocean floor, where the temperature is about 660°F (350°C), and some species survive at a pH more severe than that of battery acid. Most bacteria, however, favor temperatures close to that of the human body—98.6°F (37°C)—and pH levels only slightly more or less acidic than water. Since they are composed primarily of water, they thrive in a moist environment.

Bacteria and Humans

Not all bacteria are harmful; in fact, some even are involved in the production of foods consumed by humans. For example, bacteria that cause milk to become sour are used in making cottage cheese, buttermilk, and yogurt. Vinegar and sauerkraut also are produced by the action of bacteria on ethyl alcohol and cabbage, respectively. Other bacteria, most notably Escherichia coli (E. coli) in the human intestines, make it possible for animals to digest foods and even form vitamins in the course of their work. (See Digestion for more on these subjects.) Others function as decomposers (see Food Webs), aiding in the chemical breakdown of organic materials, while still others help keep the world a cleaner place by consuming waste materials, such as feces.

Despite its helpful role in the body, certain strains of E. coli are dangerous pathogens that can cause diarrhea, bloody stools, and severe abdominal cramping and pain. The affliction is rarely fatal, though in late 1992 and 1993 four people died during the course of an E. coli outbreak in Washington, Idaho, California, and Nevada. More often the outcome is severe illness that may bring on other conditions; for example, two teenagers among a group of 11 who became sick while attending a Texas cheerleading camp had to receive emergency appendectomies. The pathogen is usually transmitted through under-cooked foods, and sometimes through other means; for example, a small outbreak in the Atlanta area in the late 1990s occurred in a recreational water park.

Many bacteria attack the skin, eyes, ears, and various systems in the body, including the nervous, cardiovascular (heart, lung), respiratory, digestive, and genitourinary (i.e., reproductive and urinary) systems. The skin is the body's first line of defense against infection by bacteria and other microorganisms, although it supports enormous numbers of bacteria itself. Bacteria play a major role in a skin condition that is the bane of many a young man's (and, less frequently, a young woman's) existence: acne. Pimples or “zits,” known scientifically as Acne vulgaris, constitute one of about 50 varieties of acne, or skin inflammation, which are caused by a combination of heredity, hormones, and bacteria—particularly a species known as Propionibacterium acnes. When a hair follicle becomes plugged by sebum, a fatty substance secreted by the sebaceous, or oil, glands, this forms what we know as a blackhead; a pimple, on the other hand, results when a bacterial infection, brought about by P. acnes, inflames the blackhead and turns it red. For this reason, antibiotics may sometimes cure acne or at least alleviate the worst symptoms.

Acne may seem like a life-and-death issue to a teenager, but it goes away eventually. On the other hand, toxic shock syndrome (TSS), caused by other bacteria at the surface of the skin—species of Staphylococcus (Staphylococci) and Streptococcus — can be extremely dangerous. The early stages of TSS are characterized by flulike symptoms, such as sudden fever, fatigue, diarrhea, and dizziness, but in a matter of a few hours or days the blood pressure drops dangerously, and a sunburn-like rash forms on the body. Circulatory problems arise as a result of low blood pressure, and some extremities, such as the fingers and toes, are deprived of blood as the body tries to shunt blood to vital organs. If the syndrome is severe enough, gangrene may develop in the fingers and toes.

In 1980, several women in the United States died from TSS, and several others were diagnosed with the condition. As researchers discovered, all of them had been menstruating and using high-absorbency tampons. It appears that such tampons provide an environment in which TSS-causing bacteria can grow, and this led to recommendations that women use lower-absorbency tampons if possible, and change them every two to four hours. Since these guidelines were instituted, the incidence of toxic shock has dropped significantly, to between 1 and 17 cases per 100,000 menstruating women.

Many bacteria produce toxins, poisonous substances that have effects in specific areas of the body. An example is Clostridium tetani, responsible for the disease known as tetanus, in which one's muscles become paralyzed. A related bacterium, C. botulinum, releases a toxin that causes the most severe form of food poisoning, botulism. Salmonella poisoning comes from another genus, Salmonella, which includes S. typhi, the cause of typhoid fever.

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External Links for Bacteria

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What are Bacteria?

http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/E/Eubacteria.html

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What are Bacteria?

http://www.disknet.com/indiana_biolab/b003.htm

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Bacteria: Life History and Ecology

http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria/bacterialh.html

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Bacteria - by Rachel, Age 13 of Ohio

http://www.amnh.org/nationalcenter/youngnaturalistawards/1998/bacteria.html


Bacterial Infections

Medline Plus - Resource Directory

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/bacterialinfections.html

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Bacterial Infections

Health Insite - Resource Directory

http://www.healthinsite.gov.au/topics/Bacterial_Infections

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Bacterial Infections - List of Articles

E Medicine

http://www.emedicine.com/derm/BACTERIAL_INFECTIONS.htm

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List of Bacterial Infections

http://dermatology.cdlib.org/DOJvol8num1/reviews/enodosum/table1.html

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Viruses and Bacteria

http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/health_advice/facts/virusbacteria.htm

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Virus or Bacteria?

http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/bacterial-and-viral-infections

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External Links for Bacterial Infections

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Bacterial Infections

Lymphedema People sponsored

http://bacteriainfections.blogspot.com

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Erysipelas

Last Updated: February 25, 2003

Author: Loretta Davis, MD, Associate Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Dermatology, Medical College of Georgia
Coauthor(s): Keith Benbenisty, MD, Fellow, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Dermatology, Duke University Medical Center

http://www.emedicine.com/derm/topic129.htm

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Erysipelas 

Lymphedema People 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/lymphedema_erysipelas.htm

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Cellulitis

Last Updated: December 9, 2003

Synonyms and related keywords: infection of the skin, skin infection, soft tissue infection, infection of the soft tissue

Author: Giuseppe Micali, MD, Head, Professor, Department of Dermatology, University of Catania School of Medicine, Italy

Coauthor(s): Vinod K Dhawan, MD, Chief, Program Director, Division of Infectious Diseases, Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, King/Drew Medical Center, Charles R Drew University; Professor, Department of Clinical Medicine, UCLA; Maria R Nasca, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, University of Catania School of Medicine, Italy

http://www.emedicine.com/derm/topic464.htm

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Cellulitis   

Lymphedema People

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/lymphedema_cellulitis.htm

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Staphylococcal Infections

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/staphylococcalinfections.html

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Staph Infection / MRSA

http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/hardin/md/staph.html

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Staph Infection / MRSA

Lymphedema People

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/MRSA_Methicillin_Resistant_Staphylococcus_Aureus.htm

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MRSA Information

Lymphedema People Sponsored

http://mrsainformation.blogspot.com/

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Staphylococcus aureus

Signs and Symptoms:
Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are often simply called "staph" (pronounced "staff") bacteria. Staph bacteria can live harmlessly on many skin surfaces, especially around the nose, mouth, genitals, and rectum. But when the skin is punctured or broken for any reason, staph bacteria can enter the wound and cause an infection.

Staph bacteria can cause folliculitis, boils, scalded skin syndrome, impetigo, toxic shock syndrome, cellulitis, and other types of infections. 

Impetigo
Impetigo is a skin infection that is sometimes caused by staph bacteria. It may affect skin anywhere on the body but commonly occurs in the area around the nose and mouth.

Impetigo usually affects preschool- and school-age children, especially in the summer months. Impetigo caused by staph bacteria is characterized by large blisters containing fluid that is first clear, then cloudy. The blisters may burst, ooze fluid, and develop a honey-colored crust. Impetigo may itch, and it can be spread by scratching. 

Folliculitis and boils (furuncles)
Folliculitis is an infection of hair follicles, tiny pockets under the skin where hair shafts (strands) grow. In folliculitis, tiny white-headed pimples appear at the base of hair shafts, sometimes with a small red area around each pimple. Folliculitis can happen especially in children who have fine hair that they wear pulled back tightly in barrettes or braids.

Folliculitis can lead to a boil (furuncle). In a boil, the staph infection spreads deeper and wider, often affecting the skin's sebaceous glands (oil-producing glands) or subcutaneous tissue (deeper tissue under the skin). First, the area of skin either begins to itch or becomes mildly painful. Next, the skin turns red and begins to swell over the infected area. Finally, the skin above the infection becomes very tender, and a whitish "head" may appear. The head may break, and the boil may begin to drain pus, blood, or an amber-colored liquid. Boils can occur anywhere on the skin, especially under the arms or the groin or buttocks in children.

Scalded skin syndrome
Scalded skin syndrome (SSS) most often affects newborns and children under age 5. The illness usually starts with a localized staph skin infection, but the staph bacteria manufacture a toxin (poison) that affects skin all over the body. The child has a fever, rash, and sometimes blisters. The rash begins around the mouth, then spreads to the trunk, arms, and legs. As blisters burst and the rash passes, the top layer of skin is dislodged and the skin surface becomes red and raw, like a burn.

http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/staphylococcus.html

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What is a Staph Infection?

Columbia University - General Health

http://www.goaskalice.columbia.edu/2109.html


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Streptococcal Infections

Medline Plus - Resource Directory

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/streptococcalinfections.html

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Group A Streptococcal Infections

National Institutes of Health

http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/strep.htm


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Group B Strep Infection

http://www.marchofdimes.com/professionals/14332_1205.asp

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Strep Infections

http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/hardin/md/strep.html


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Pseudomonas Folliculitis

Last Updated: October 14, 2003

Synonyms and related keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa folliculitis, whirlpool folliculitis, hot tub folliculitis, gram-negative folliculitis

Author: Charles B Toner, MD, Head, Department of Dermatology, Naval Hospital, Guam

Coauthor(s): Stephen Krivda, MD, Director of Dermatopathology, Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences

http://www.emedicine.com/derm/topic356.htm

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Folliculitis

Lymphedema People

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/lymphedema_folliculitis.htm


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Cat Scratch Disease

Last Updated: June 13, 2002

Synonyms and related keywords: catscratch fever, sub acute regional lymphadenitis, bartonellosis, Bartonella henselae, B henselae, CSD, catscratch antigen, CSA

Author: Kerrie J Spoonemore, MD, PharmD, Resident Physician, Department of Dermatology, University of Oklahoma

Coauthor(s): Gregory J Raugi, MD, PhD, Chief, Veterans Administration Medical Center of Seattle; Program Director, Associate Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Dermatology, University of Washington at Seattle

http://www.emedicine.com/derm/topic69.htm

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Cat Scratch Fever (Cat Scratch Disease - Bartonella henselae Infection)

Lymphedema People

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=cat_scratch_fever

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Impetigo

Last Updated: March 18, 2002

Synonyms and related keywords: impetigo contagiosa, Fox impetigo, impetigo bullosa, impetigo contagiosa bullosa, impetigo neonatorum

Author: Anne E Burdick, MD, MPH, Department of Dermatology, Associate Professor, University of Miami School of Medicine; Medical Director, Dermatology Clinic, Jackson Memorial Hospital

Coauthor(s): Kapil Saigal, BS, University of Miami School of Medicine

http://www.emedicine.com/derm/topic195.htm

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Impetigo

Lymphedema People

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=impetigo

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Gram-negative and Gram-positive Bacteria

http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/Antibiotics_Attack/bb_1.html

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Gram-negative and Gram-positive Bacteria

Can’t Live With ‘Em, Can’t Live Without ‘Em
By Kathy Dix

http://www.infectioncontroltoday.com/articles/391Clinical.html

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Types of Antibiotics - Gram Negative versus Positive Stain Bacteria

http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3409800256.html 

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Article: Gram Negative Bacteria


http://www.fpnotebook.com/ID/Bacteria/GrmNgtvBctr.htm

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Gram-negative Bacteria

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gram-negative


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Gram Negative / Enteric Bacteria 

http://www.textbookofbacteriology.net/medical.html

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Common Bacterial Skin Infections

DANIEL L. STULBERG, M.D., MARC A. PENROD, M.D., and RICHARD A. BLATNY, M.D.

Utah Valley Family Practice Residency, Provo, Utah

American Family Physician

http://www.aafp.org/afp/20020701/119.html

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Lymphedema People Additional Bacterial Infection Pages

Infections Associated with Lymphedema

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=infections_associated_with_lymphedema

Necrotizing Fasciitis

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/lymphedema_and_necrotizing_fasciitis.htm

Carbuncles, Furuncles, Boils

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/lymphedema_carbuncles.html

Lymphadenitis

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/lymphedema_lymphadenitis.htm

Preventing Hospital Infections

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=preventing_hospital_infections

Infectious Disease Doctor

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=infectious_disease_doctor

Antibiotics

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/lymphedema_antibiotics.htm

Lymphadenopathy

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/lymphedema_lymphadenopathy.htm

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Related Lymphedema People Related  Medical Blogs and Pages:

Bacterial Infections

http://bacteriainfections.blogspot.com

Antibiotics

http://antibioticinformation.blogspot.com/

Cellulitis

http://cellulitisinfections.blogspot.com/

MRSA Information

http://mrsainformation.blogspot.com/

Antibiotic Glossary

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/phpBB2/viewforum.php?f=34

Antibiotic Therapy, Types of Antibiotics

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite/lymphedema_antibiotics.htm

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Join us as we work for lymphedema patients everywehere:

Advocates for Lymphedema

Dedicated to be an advocacy group for lymphedema patients. Working towards education, legal reform, changing insurance practices, promoting research, reaching for a cure.

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/AdvocatesforLymphedema/

Subscribe: AdvocatesforLymphedema-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

Pat O'Connor

Lymphedema People / Advocates for Lymphedema

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For information about Lymphedema

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema\

For Information about Lymphedema Complications

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=complications_of_lymphedema

For Lymphedema Personal Stories

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/phpBB2/viewforum.php?f=3

For information about How to Treat a Lymphedema Wound

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=how_to_treat_a_lymphedema_wound

For information about Lymphedema Treatment 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=treatment

For information about Exercises for Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=exercises_for_lymphedema

For information on Infections Associated with Lymphedema

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=infections_associated_with_lymphedema

For information on Lymphedema in Children

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_in_children

Lymphedema Glossary

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=glossary:listing

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Lymphedema People - Support Groups

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Children with Lymphedema

The time has come for families, parents, caregivers to have a support group of their own. Support group for parents, families and caregivers of chilren with lymphedema. Sharing information on coping, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Sponsored by Lymphedema People.

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/childrenwithlymphedema/

Subscribe: childrenwithlymphedema-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

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Lipedema Lipodema Lipoedema

No matter how you spell it, this is another very little understood and totally frustrating conditions out there. This will be a support group for those suffering with lipedema/lipodema. A place for information, sharing experiences, exploring treatment options and coping.

Come join, be a part of the family!

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/lipedema_lipodema_lipoedema/?yguid=209645515

Subscribe: lipedema_lipodema_lipoedema-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

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MEN WITH LYMPHEDEMA

If you are a man with lymphedema; a man with a loved one with lymphedema who you are trying to help and understand come join us and discover what it is to be the master instead of the sufferer of lymphedema.

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/menwithlymphedema/

Subscribe: menwithlymphedema-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

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All About Lymphangiectasia

Support group for parents, patients, children who suffer from all forms of lymphangiectasia. This condition is caused by dilation of the lymphatics. It can affect the intestinal tract, lungs and other critical body areas.

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/allaboutlymphangiectasia/

Subscribe: allaboutlymphangiectasia-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

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Lymphatic Disorders Support Group @ Yahoo Groups

While we have a number of support groups for lymphedema... there is nothing out there for other lymphatic disorders. Because we have one of the most comprehensive information sites on all lymphatic disorders, I thought perhaps, it is time that one be offered.

DISCRIPTION

Information and support for rare and unusual disorders affecting the lymph system. Includes lymphangiomas, lymphatic malformations, telangiectasia, hennekam's syndrome, distichiasis, Figueroa
syndrome, ptosis syndrome, plus many more. Extensive database of information available through sister site Lymphedema People.

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/lymphaticdisorders/

Subscribe: lymphaticdisorders-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

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Lymphedema People New Wiki Pages

Have you seen our new “Wiki” pages yet?  Listed below are just a sample of the more than 140 pages now listed in our Wiki section. We are also working on hundred more.  Come and take a stroll! 

Lymphedema Glossary 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=glossary:listing 

Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema 

Arm Lymphedema  

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=arm_lymphedema 

Leg Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=leg_lymphedema 

Acute Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=acute_lymphedema 

The Lymphedema Diet 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=the_lymphedema_diet 

Exercises for Lymphedema  

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=exercises_for_lymphedema 

Diuretics are not for Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=diuretics_are_not_for_lymphedema 

Lymphedema People Online Support Groups 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_people_online_support_groups 

Lipedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lipedema 

Treatment 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=treatment 

Lymphedema and Pain Management 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_and_pain_management 

Manual Lymphatic Drainage (MLD) and Complex Decongestive Therapy (CDT)

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=manual_lymphatic_drainage_mld_complex_decongestive_therapy_cdt 

Infections Associated with Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=infections_associated_with_lymphedema 

How to Treat a Lymphedema Wound 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=how_to_treat_a_lymphedema_wound 

Fungal Infections Associated with Lymphedema 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=fungal_infections_associated_with_lymphedema 

Lymphedema in Children 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_in_children 

Lymphoscintigraphy 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphoscintigraphy 

Magnetic Resonance Imaging 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=magnetic_resonance_imaging 

Extraperitoneal para-aortic lymph node dissection (EPLND) 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=extraperitoneal_para-aortic_lymph_node_dissection_eplnd 

Axillary node biopsy 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=axillary_node_biopsy

Sentinel Node Biopsy 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=sentinel_node_biopsy

 Small Needle Biopsy - Fine Needle Aspiration 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=small_needle_biopsy 

Magnetic Resonance Imaging 

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=magnetic_resonance_imaging 

Lymphedema Gene FOXC2

 http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_gene_foxc2

 Lymphedema Gene VEGFC

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_gene_vegfc

 Lymphedema Gene SOX18

 http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_gene_sox18

 Lymphedema and Pregnancy

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lymphedema_and_pregnancy

Home page: Lymphedema People

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com

Page Updated: Jan. 15, 2012