Your lymphatic system can basically be though of as the body's sewer
collects waste, carries them through and helps eliminate them from you
this system is severely damaged and is unable to perform the
function it is suppose to. So it needs and extra boost, as helping hand
were to help clean these waste from your body.
Antioxidant vitamins give it that extra boost, and helps eliminate
radical free agent (by products of the body's metabolic action).
Antioxidant vitamins are defined as nutrients (vitamins) or enzymes
clean up damaging free radicals that damage our body tissues and which
implicated as a causative agent in many diseases and conditions.
agents come from our body's metabolic process, smoking, alcohol, and
pollution of our modern world.
A list of antioxidants include:
1. Vitamins A, C, E, and beta-carotene
2. Lycopene - for example is found in tomatoes
3. Flavonoids - found in gilkg biloba, black cherries, blackberries,
(also bynzopyrones belong in the flavonoid family)
4. Quericetin - a specialized flavonoid.
5. Coenzyme Q10 - a vitamin-like substance
6. Selenium - indirectly an antioxidant as it is required for the
the major antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase
Antioxidant vitamins C and E improve
endothelial function in children with
hyperlipidemia: Endothelial Assessment of Risk from Lipids in Youth
Engler MM, Engler MB, Malloy MJ, Chiu EY, Schloetter MC, Paul SM,
Lin KY, Cooke JP, Morrow JD, Ridker PM, Rifai N, Miller E, Witztum JL,
University of California, San Francisco, 2 Koret Way, Rm N631, San
Calif 94143-0610, USA.
Ascorbic acid reverses endothelial
vasomotor dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease.
Levine GN, Frei B, Koulouris SN, Gerhard MD, Keaney JF Jr,
Evans Memorial Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical
BACKGROUND: In the setting of atherosclerosis, endothelial vasomotor
abnormal. Increased oxidative stress has been implicated as one
mechanism for this observation. We therefore hypothesized that an
ascorbic acid, would improve endothelium-dependent arterial dilation in
with coronary artery disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Brachial artery
endothelium-dependent dilation in response to hyperemia was assessed by
high-resolution vascular ultrasound before and 2 hours after oral
of either 2 g ascorbic acid or placebo in a total of 46 patients with
coronary artery disease. Plasma ascorbic acid concentration increased
hours after treatment (46+/-8 to 114+/-11 micromol/L, P=.001). In the
prospectively defined group of patients with an abnormal baseline
(<5% dilation), ascorbic acid produced marked improvement in
(2.0+/-0.6% to 9.7+/-2.0%), whereas placebo had no effect (1.1+/-1.5%
1.7+/-1.5%, P=.003 for ascorbic acid versus placebo). Ascorbic acid had
effect on hyperemic flow or arterial dilation to sublingual
CONCLUSIONS: Ascorbic acid reverses endothelial vasomotor dysfunction
brachial circulation of patients with coronary artery disease. These
suggest that increased oxidative stress contributes to endothelial
in patients with atherosclerosis and that endothelial dysfunction may
Oral vitamin C and endothelial function in
smokers: short-term improvement, but no sustained beneficial effect.
Raitakari OT, Adams MR, McCredie RJ, Griffiths KA, Stocker R,
Department of Cardiology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney,
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that antioxidant therapy would
endothelial function in smokers. BACKGROUND: Several studies have
beneficial effect of short-term oral or parenteral vitamin C on
physiology in subjects with early arterial dysfunction. Possible
effects of vitamin C on endothelial function, however, are not known.
We studied the effects of short- and long-term oral vitamin C therapy
endothelial function in 20 healthy young adult smokers (age 36 +/- 6
male subjects, 21 +/- 10 pack-years). Each subject was studied at
baseline, 2 h
after a single dose of 2 g vitamin C and 8 weeks after taking 1 g
daily, and after placebo, in a randomized double-blind crossover study.
samples were analyzed for plasma ascorbate levels and endothelial
measured as flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery, using high
ultrasound. Nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (endothelium-independent)
measured at each visit. RESULTS: At baseline, plasma ascorbate level
was low in
the smokers (42 +/- 21 micromol/liter; normal range, 50 to 150
increased with vitamin C therapy after 2 h to 120 +/- 54 micromol/liter
0.001) and remained elevated after eight weeks of supplementation at 92
micromol/liter (p < 0.001, compared with placebo). Flow-mediated
however, increased at 2 h (from 2.8 +/- 2.0% to 6.3 +/- 2.8%, p
< 0.001), but
there was no sustained beneficial effect after eight weeks (3.9 +/-
3.2%, p =
0.26). Nitroglycerin-mediated dilation was unchanged throughout.
Oral vitamin C therapy improves endothelial dysfunction in the short
healthy young smokers, but it has no beneficial long-term effect,
sustained elevation of plasma ascorbate levels.
Randomized, controlled trial of antioxidant
cardioprotective diet on hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, and
experimental atherosclerosis: the diet and antioxidant trial on
Singh RB, Niaz AM, Ghosh S, Agarwal P, Ahmad S, Begum R,
Onouchi Z, Kummerow
Heart Research Laboratory and Centre of Nutrition Research, Medical
Research Centre, Moradabad, India.
The effects of administration of guava and papaya fruit (100 g/day),
and mustard oil (5 g/day) (group A); antioxidant vitamins C (50 mg/day)
(30 mg/day), plus betacarotene (10 mg/day) (group B); a high-fat (5-10
(group C); or a low-fat (4-5 g/day) diet (group D) were compared over
weeks in a randomized fashion, while all groups of rabbits (five in
each of four
groups) received a hydrogenated fat diet (5-10 g/day) for a period of
After 12 weeks on the high-fat diet, each group of rabbits had an
blood lipoproteins. The fruit and vegetable-enriched prudent diet
caused a significant decline in blood lipids at 24 and 36 weeks,
lipid levels increased significantly in groups C and D. Group A also
significant rise in vitamin E (2.1 Umol/l), C (10.5 Umol/l), A (0.66
and carotene (0.08 Umol/l) and a decrease in lipid peroxides (0.34
nmol/ml at 36
weeks, whereas the levels were unchanged in groups C and D. Group B
a significant and greater increase than group A in plasma vitamins E,
C, A, and
carotene; a rise in HDL cholesterol; and a greater decrease in lipid
after 24 and 36 weeks of treatment. After stimulation of lipid
all rabbits, 3 of 5 group C and 2 of 5 group D rabbits died due to
thrombosis, whereas in groups A and B there were no deaths, indicating
antioxidant therapy can provide protection against lipid peroxidation
radical generation. Aortic lipids and sudanophilia, indicating
were significantly higher in groups C and D than in groups A and B.
streaks and atheromatous and fibrous plaques were noted in all the
groups C and D. Intimal fibrosis and medial degeneration were also
the group C rabbits. While group A (36.4 +/- 4.4 microns) and group B
4.2 microns) rabbits had minimal coronary artery plaque sizes, group C
10.6 microns) and group D rabbits (69.5 +/- 6.2 microns) had
greater plaque sizes. Aortic plaque sizes were also greater in groups C
than in groups A and B. It is possible that combined therapy with
vitamins C, E, and carotene, and a diet rich in antioxidants, could
independently inhibit free radical generation and the development of
Vitamin B12 protects against superoxide-induced cell injury in human aortic endothelial cells. Aug 2011
Integrative Medical Sciences, Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rootstown, OH 44272, USA.
(O(2)(-)) is implicated in inflammatory states including
arteriosclerosis and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cobalamin (Cbl)
supplementation is beneficial for treating many inflammatory diseases
and also provides protection in oxidative-stress-associated
pathologies. Reduced Cbl reacts with O(2)(-) at rates approaching that
of superoxide dismutase (SOD), suggesting a plausible mechanism for its anti-inflammatory
properties. Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) is an independent risk factor
for cardiovascular disease and endothelial dysfunction. Hcy increases
O(2)(-) levels in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). Here, we
explore the protective effects of Cbl in HAEC exposed to various
O(2)(-) sources, including increased Hcy levels. Hcy increased
O(2)(-) levels (1.6-fold) in HAEC, concomitant with a 20% reduction in
cell viability and a 1.5-fold increase in apoptotic death. Pretreatment
of HAEC with physiologically relevant concentrations of cyanocobalamin
(CNCbl) (10-50nM) prevented Hcy-induced increases in O(2)(-) and cell
death. CNCbl inhibited both Hcy and rotenone-induced mitochondrial
O(2)(-) production. Similarly, HAEC challenged with paraquat showed a
1.5-fold increase in O(2)(-) levels and a 30% decrease in cell
viability, both of which were prevented with CNCbl pretreatment. CNCbl
also attenuated elevated O(2)(-) levels after exposure of cells to a
Cu/Zn-SOD inhibitor. Our data suggest that Cbl acts as an efficient
intracellular O(2)(-) scavenger.
Vitamin C as an antioxidant supplement in women's health: a myth in need of urgent burial. Jul 2011http://www.ejog.org/article/S0301-2115(11)00175-8/abstract
The role of vitamins in the prevention and treatment of thyroid disorders 2011
nail syndrome in three siblings: a randomized double-blind trial of
vitamin E. - Jul 2006
vitamins and cancer risk: is oxidative damage to DNA a relevant
of folic acid and B vitamins on risk of cardiovascular events and total
mortality among women at high risk for cardiovascular disease: a
trial. - May 2008
supplement use and risk of neoplastic progression in esophageal
a prospective study. - Jan 2008
of short-term garlic supplementation on lipid metabolism and
in hypertensive adults. - May 2008
supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and
with various diseases. - April 2008
and CVD.- May 2008
studies on the effect of dietary antioxidants on asthma: a
utility of vitamin K3 (menadione) against pancreatic cancer.
- Jan 2008
What is selenium?
is a trace mineral that is essential to good health but required only
in small amounts [1,2].
Selenium is incorporated into proteins to make selenoproteins, which
are important antioxidant enzymes. The antioxidant properties of
selenoproteins help prevent cellular damage from free radicals. Free
radicals are natural by-products of oxygen metabolism that may
contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer and
heart disease [2,3].
Other selenoproteins help regulate thyroid function and play a role in
the immune system [4-7].
What foods provide selenium?
foods are the major dietary sources of selenium in most countries
throughout the world. The content of selenium in food depends on the
selenium content of the soil where plants are grown or animals are
raised. For example, researchers know that soils in the high plains of
northern Nebraska and the Dakotas have very high levels of selenium.
People living in those regions generally have the highest selenium
intakes in the United States (U.S.) . In the U.S., food distribution
patterns across the country help prevent people living in low-selenium
geographic areas from having low dietary selenium intakes. Soils in
some parts of China and Russia have very low amounts of selenium.
Selenium deficiency is often reported in those regions because most
food in those areas is grown and eaten locally.
Selenium also can be found in some meats and seafood. Animals that eat
grains or plants that were grown in selenium-rich soil have higher
levels of selenium in their muscle. In the U.S., meats and bread are
common sources of dietary selenium [9,10]. Some nuts are also sources of
Selenium content of foods can vary. For example, Brazil nuts may
contain as much as 544 micrograms of selenium per ounce. They also may
contain far less selenium. It is wise to eat Brazil nuts only
occasionally because of their unusually high intake of selenium.
Selected food sources of selenium are provided in Table 1 .
Table 1: Selected food sources of selenium
nuts, dried, unblanched, 1 ounce
light, canned in oil, drained, 3 ounces
cooked, 3½ ounces
w/ meat sauce, frozen entrιe, 1 serving
cooked, 3 ounces
light meat, roasted, 3½ ounces
chuck roast, lean only, roasted, 3 ounces
Breast, meat only, roasted, 3½ ounces
enriched, boiled, 1/2 cup
elbow, enriched, boiled, 1/2 cup
whole, 1 medium
cheese, low fat 2%, 1/2 cup
instant, fortified, cooked, 1 cup
white, enriched, long grain, cooked, 1/2 cup
brown, long-grained, cooked, 1/2 cup
enriched, whole wheat, commercially prepared, 1 slice
black, dried, 1 ounce
enriched, white, commercially prepared, 1 slice
cheese, 1 ounce
*DV = Daily Value. DVs are reference numbers developed by the Food and
Drug Administration (FDA) to help consumers determine if a food
contains a lot or a little of a specific nutrient. The DV for selenium
is 70 micrograms (ug). Most food labels do not list a food's selenium
content. The percent DV (%DV) listed on the table indicates the
percentage of the DV provided in one serving. A food providing 5% of
the DV or less is a low source while a food that provides 10-19% of the
DV is a good source. A food that provides 20% or more of the DV is high
in that nutrient. It is important to remember that foods that provide
lower percentages of the DV also contribute to a healthful diet. For
foods not listed in this table, please refer to the U.S. Department of
Agriculture's Nutrient Database Web site: http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/cgi-bin/nut_search.pl.
What is the recommended dietary intake for selenium?
for selenium are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes developed by
the Institute of Medicine . Dietary Reference
Intakes (DRIs) is the general term for a set of reference
values used for planning and assessing nutrient intake for healthy
people. Three important types of reference values included in the DRIs
are Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), Adequate
Intakes (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL).
The RDA recommends the average daily dietary intake level that is
sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97-98%)
healthy individuals in each age and gender group .
An AI is set when there is insufficient scientific data available to
establish a RDA. AIs meet or exceed the amount needed to maintain a
nutritional state of adequacy in nearly all members of a specific age
and gender group. The UL, on the other hand, is the maximum daily
intake unlikely to result in adverse health effects .
Table 2 lists the RDAs for selenium, in micrograms (μg) per day, for
children and adults.
Table 2: Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
for selenium for children and adults 
|19 y +
There is insufficient information on selenium to establish a RDA for
infants. An Adequate Intake (AI) has been established that is based on
the amount of selenium consumed by healthy infants who are fed breast
Table 3 lists the AIs for selenium, in micrograms (μg) per day, for
Table 2: Adequate Intake for selenium for
|Males and Females
Results of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES
III-1988-94) indicated that diets of most Americans provide recommended
amounts of selenium . The INTERMAP study examined
nutrient intakes of almost 5,000 middle-aged men and women in four
countries in the late 1990s, including the U.S. The primary aim of the
study was to evaluate the effect of dietary micronutrients on blood
pressure. Each study participant completed four, 24-hour dietary
recalls, during which they were asked to record everything consumed
(food, beverages, and dietary supplements) over the previous 24 hours.
Selenium intake was lowest among residents of China, the country with
the highest known rate of selenium deficiency. Mean dietary intake of
selenium of U.S. participants was 153 μg for men and 109 μg for women.
Both values exceed the recommended selenium intake for adults and are
further evidence of adequate selenium intakes in the U.S. .
can selenium deficiency occur?
selenium deficiency is rare in the U.S. but is seen in other countries,
most notably China, where soil concentration of selenium is low .
There is evidence that selenium deficiency may contribute to
development of a form of heart disease, hypothyroidism, and a weakened
immune system [16,17].
There is also evidence that selenium deficiency does not usually cause
illness by itself. Rather, it can make the body more susceptible to
illnesses caused by other nutritional, biochemical or infectious
Three specific diseases have been associated with selenium deficiency:
Disease, which results in an enlarged heart and poor heart function,
occurs in selenium deficient children.
Disease, which results in osteoarthropathy
Endemic Cretinism, which results in mental retardation
Keshan disease was first described in the early 1930s in China, and is
still seen in large areas of the Chinese countryside with selenium poor
Dietary intake in these areas is less than 19 micrograms per day for
men and less than 13 micrograms per day for women, significantly lower
than the current RDA for selenium . Researchers believe that
selenium deficient people infected with a specific virus are most
likely to develop Keshan disease [18,19].
Selenium deficiency has also been seen in people who rely on total
parenteral nutrition (TPN) as their sole source of nutrition [20,21].
TPN is a method of feeding nutrients through an intravenous (IV) line
to people whose digestive systems do not function. Forms of nutrients
that do not require digestion are dissolved in liquid and infused
through the IV line. It is important for TPN solutions to provide
selenium in order to prevent a deficiency .
Physicians can monitor the selenium status of individuals receiving TPN
to make sure they are receiving adequate amounts.
Severe gastrointestinal disorders may decrease the absorption of
selenium, resulting in selenium depletion or deficiency .
Gastrointestinal problems that impair selenium absorption usually
affect absorption of other nutrients as well, and require routine
monitoring of nutritional status so that appropriate medical and
nutritional treatment can be provided.
Who may need supplemental selenium?
the U.S., most cases of selenium depletion or deficiency are associated
with severe gastrointestinal problems, such as Crohn's disease, or with
surgical removal of part of the stomach. These and other
gastrointestinal disorders can impair selenium absorption [24-26].
People with acute severe illness who develop inflammation and
widespread infection often have decreased levels of selenium in their
Physicians will evaluate individuals who have gastrointestinal disease
or severe infection for depleted blood levels of selenium to determine
the need for supplementation.
People with iodine deficiency may also benefit from selenium
supplementation. Iodine deficiency is rare in the U.S., but is still
common in developing countries where access to iodine is limited .
Researchers believe that selenium deficiency may worsen the effects of
iodine deficiency on thyroid function, and that adequate selenium
nutritional status may help protect against some of the neurological
effects of iodine deficiency [6,7]. Researchers involved in the
Supplementation en Vitamines et Mineraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) study
in France, which was designed to assess the effect of vitamin and
mineral supplements on chronic disease risk, evaluated the relationship
between goiter and selenium in a subset of this research population.
Their findings suggest that selenium supplements may be protective
against goiter, which refers to enlargement of the thyroid gland .
As noted above, selenium supplementation during TPN administration is
now routine [21,22].
While specific medical problems such as those described above indicate
a need for selenium supplementation, evidence is lacking for
recommending selenium supplements for healthy children and adults.
Selenium occurs in staple foods such as corn, wheat, and soybean as
selenomethionine, the organic selenium analogue of the amino acid
Selenomethionine can be incorporated into body proteins in place of
methionine, and serves as a vehicle for selenium storage in organs and
tissues. Selenium supplements may also contain sodium selenite and
sodium selenate, two inorganic forms of selenium. Selenomethionine is
generally considered to be the best absorbed and utilized form of
Selenium is also available in 'high selenium yeasts', which may contain
as much as 1,000 to 2,000 micrograms of selenium per gram .
Most of the selenium in these yeasts is in the form of
selenomethionine. This form of selenium was used in the large scale
cancer prevention trial in 1983, which demonstrated that taking a daily
supplement containing 200 micrograms of selenium per day could lower
the risk of developing prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer .
However, some yeasts may contain inorganic forms of selenium, which are
not utilized as well as selenomethionine.
A study conducted in 1995 suggested that the organic forms of selenium
increased blood selenium concentration to a greater extent than
inorganic forms. However, it did not significantly improve the activity
of the selenium-dependent enzyme, glutathione peroxidase .
Researchers are continuing to examine the effects of different chemical
forms of selenium, but the organic form currently appears to be the
What are some current issues and controversies
Observational studies indicate that death from cancer, including lung,
colorectal, and prostate cancers, is lower among people with higher
blood levels or intake of selenium [34-40]. In addition, the incidence of
nonmelanoma skin cancer is significantly higher in areas of the United
States with low soil selenium content . The effect of selenium
supplementation on the recurrence of different types of skin cancers
was studied in seven dermatology clinics in the U.S. from 1983 through
the early 1990s. Taking a daily supplement containing 200 μg of
selenium did not affect recurrence of skin cancer, but significantly
reduced the occurrence and death from total cancers. The incidence of
prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, and lung cancer was notably lower
in the group given selenium supplements .
Research suggests that selenium affects cancer risk in two ways. As an
anti-oxidant, selenium can help protect the body from damaging effects
of free radicals. Selenium may also prevent or slow tumor growth.
Certain breakdown products of selenium are believed to prevent tumor
growth by enhancing immune cell activity and suppressing development of
blood vessels to the tumor .
However, not all studies have shown a relationship between selenium
status and cancer. In 1982, over 60,000 participants of the Nurse's
Health Study with no history of cancer submitted toenail clippings for
selenium analysis. Toenails are thought to reflect selenium status over
the previous year. After three and a half years of data collection,
researchers compared toenail selenium levels of nurses with and without
cancer. Those nurses with higher levels of selenium in their toenails
did not have a reduced risk of cancer .
Two important long-term studies, the SU.VI.MAX study in France and the
Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) study in the
U.S., are now underway to further investigate the selenium/cancer
The SU.VI.MAX Study is a prevention trial looking at the effects of
antioxidant vitamins and minerals on chronic diseases such as cancer
and cardiovascular disease. Doses of the nutrients provided in the
study are one to three times higher than recommended intakes, including
a daily supplement of 100 μg selenium. The SU.VI.MAX study, which began
in 1994, has followed more than 12,000 adult men and women. This study
was designed to continue for eight years, and the research community is
eagerly awaiting the results of this study .
The SELECT study, a long-term study sponsored by the NIH, is
investigating whether supplemental selenium and/or vitamin E can
decrease the risk of prostate cancer in healthy men. Past evidence as
well as pre-clinical trials for the SELECT study suggests that these
two nutrients may be effective in preventing prostate cancer. A daily
supplement containing 200 μg of selenium will be given to individuals
in the selenium-only study group, while men in the combined-nutrients
group will receive a daily supplement containing 200 μg selenium and
400 mg vitamin E. The study, which will span from 2001 to 2013, will
include 32,400 healthy adult men .
Selenium and heart disease
Some population surveys have suggested an association between lower
antioxidant intake and a greater incidence of heart disease .
Evidence also suggests that oxidative stress from free radicals, which
are natural by-products of oxygen metabolism, may promote heart disease
For example, it is the oxidized form of low-density lipoproteins (LDL,
often called "bad" cholesterol) that promotes plaque build-up in
coronary arteries .
Selenium is one of a group of antioxidants that may help limit the
oxidation of LDL cholesterol and thereby help to prevent coronary
artery disease [47-49].
Currently there is insufficient evidence available to recommend
selenium supplements for the prevention of coronary heart disease;
however, the SU.VI.MAX study mentioned earlier is looking at the
effects of antioxidant nutrients such as selenium on heart disease.
Selenium and arthritis
Surveys indicate that individuals with rheumatoid arthritis, a chronic
disease that causes pain, stiffness, swelling, and loss of function in
joints, have reduced selenium levels in their blood [50-51].
In addition, some individuals with arthritis have a low selenium intake
The body's immune system naturally makes free radicals that can help
destroy invading organisms and damaged tissue, but that can also harm
healthy tissue .
Selenium, as an antioxidant, may help to relieve symptoms of arthritis
by controlling levels of free radicals . Current findings are considered
preliminary, and further research is needed before selenium supplements
can be recommended for individuals with arthritis.
Selenium and HIV
HIV/AIDS malabsorption can deplete levels of many nutrients, including
selenium. Selenium deficiency is associated with decreased immune cell
counts, increased disease progression, and high risk of death in the
HIV/AIDS population [55,56]. HIV/AIDS gradually destroys the
immune system, and oxidative stress may contribute to further damage of
immune cells. Antioxidant nutrients such as selenium help protect cells
from oxidative stress, thus potentially slowing progression of the
Selenium also may be needed for the replication of the HIV virus, which
could further deplete levels of selenium .
An examination of 125 HIV-positive men and women linked selenium
deficiency with a higher rate of death from HIV .
In a small study of 24 children with HIV who were observed for five
years, those with low selenium levels died at a younger age, which may
indicate faster disease progression . Results of research studies have
led experts to suggest that selenium status may be a significant
predictor of survival for those infected with HIV .
Researchers continue to investigate the relationship between selenium
and HIV/AIDS, including the effect of selenium levels on disease
progression and mortality. There is insufficient evidence to routinely
recommend selenium supplements for individuals with HIV/AIDS, but
physicians may prescribe such supplements as part of an overall
treatment plan. It is also important for HIV-positive individuals to
consume recommended amounts of selenium in their diet.
What is the health risk of too much selenium?
blood levels of selenium (greater than 100 μg/dL) can result in a
condition called selenosis . Symptoms of selenosis include
gastrointestinal upsets, hair loss, white blotchy nails, garlic breath
odor, fatigue, irritability, and mild nerve damage .
Selenium toxicity is rare in the U.S. The few reported cases have been
associated with industrial accidents and a manufacturing error that led
to an excessively high dose of selenium in a supplement [63,64].
The Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences has set a
tolerable upper intake level (UL) for selenium at 400 micrograms per
day for adults to prevent the risk of developing selenosis .
Table 4 lists ULs for selenium, in micrograms per day, for infants,
children, and adults.
4: Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for selenium for infants, children,
and adults 
||Males and Females
|0 - 6 months
|7 - 12 months
|19 y +
Selecting a healthful diet
2000 Dietary Guidelines for Americans states,
"Different foods contain different nutrients and other healthful
substances. No single food can supply all the nutrients in the amounts
you need" .
For more information about building a healthful diet, refer to the Dietary
Guidelines for Americans  http://www.usda.gov/cnpp/DietGd.pdf
and the Food Guide Pyramid  http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/Fpyr/pyramid.html.
stores are well-stocked with all kinds of antioxidant pills and
capsules. Magazines abound extolling the virtues of vitamins C and E
and beta-carotene. Just how important are antioxidants? Can they
prevent disease? In what foods do we find them? Can we get too much of
needed for the metabolism of fat and carbohydrates for energy. However,
exceed oxygen molecules and other free radicals that form as
by-products of normal cellular reactions can cause damage to cells if
not inactivated. The body has a complex antioxidant defense system to
neutralize radicals and prevent cell damage and disease. Aging and
chronic diseases, such as heart disease and cancer, are currently
believed to result from damage caused by free radicals.
antioxidant defense system of the body includes the antioxidant
vitamins E and C, and the carotenoids (pigments present in colored
vegetables and some colored fruits). Higher intakes of these nutrients
are associated with lower rates of cancer and cardiovascular disease.
Optimal levels of antioxidants are also needed for maintenance of
immune function. HA Finnish study reported that vegetarians had a
higher dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients and higher levels of
antioxidant enzymes than nonvegetarians.
of LDL cholesterol is now commonly regarded as important for
atherogenesis. Vitamin E is especially effective in protecting LDL from
oxidation. Vitamin E also inhibits platelet clumping so that blood clot
formation is reduced. Vitamin E is found in large quantities in whole
grains seeds, nuts, and vegetable oils.
In a Harvard
study, tomatoes and strawberries were found to be effective against
prostate cancer. The benefits of tomatoes were found in both raw and
cooked forms. Men who ate at least 10 servings a week of tomato-based
foods had 40% less risk of prostate cancer, while men who ate 4 to 7
servings per week had a 22% reduced risk compared with those eating
less than 2 servings per week. Tomatoes are rich in Iycopene, a red
carotenoid pigment that has antioxidant activity.
the function of the lens and retina of the eye during aging are
exacerbated by a lack of antioxidant vitamins and diminished
antioxidant enzyme capabilities. Increased antioxidant intake from a
diet rich in fruit and vegetables may provide the least costly and most
practicable means to delay cataracts. Furthermore, the retina
accumulates two carotenoid pigments, lutein and zeaxanthin, obtained
from green leafy vegetables. Evidence suggests that the carotenoids, as
well as vitamins E and C, help retard retinal damage that leads to
have decided to increase their antioxidant status by ingesting vitamin
E and C and beta-carotene supplements to reduce their risk of disease.
This practice is fairly safe since these antioxidants have a fairly low
toxicity. However, large scale intervention studies involving the use
of supplemental antioxidant vitamins have produced mixed results. Some
studies have indicated benefits (such as less coronary artery disease
with vitamin E supplements) while others have failed to reduce cancer
rates. Some studies have even shown that antioxidant supplements may in
fact promote cancer. However, the antioxidant story is much bigger than
just these three nutrients.
In addition to
the antioxidant vitamins they contain, whole grains, nuts' fruits and
vegetables also contain a wide variety of flavonoids and other plant
phenolics (such as ellagic, ferulic and caffeic acids) that act as
powerful antioxidants. The flavonoids also extend the activity of
vitamin C and inhibit blood clot forrnabon. Grapes, strawberries,
raspberries and nuts are rich in ellagic acid, while oats, grapes,
blueberries, soybeans and prunes are good sources of ferulic and
caffeic adds. The phenolic compounds in ginger have an antioxidant
activity even greater than vitamin E. Two recent European studies have
found that high intakes of flavonoids from fruits and vegetables are
related to low rates of heart disease and cancer.
Vitamins & Minerals as Therapy
ANNIE APPLE SEED PROJECT
IN CANCER THERAPY
Antioxidant Vitamin Supplements and Cardiovascular Diseasehttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/110/5/637.full
What are antioxidant vitamins?
NCI FACT SHEET: Antioxidants and Cancer
Antioxidants and Cancer: The Jury's Still Out
A and Carotenoids
Vitamin C: Your Ultimate Health Insurance
Vitamin C is the Key to Great Health
Vitamin C Foundation
Antioxidants: Working Toward A Definition
National Institutes of Health
OFFICE OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
IMPORTANCE OF BODY AND LYMPHATIC DETOXIFICATION
IN THE TREATMENT OF LYMPHEDEMA
NLN Newsletter April-June 1997
Wholistic Lymphedema Treatment Center
The Top 10 Antioxidant Foods
by Lisa Turner
Better Nutrition, Jan. 2002
of articles for Lymphedema Treatment :
Therapy for Postsurgical Breast Cancer Arm Lymphedema
Therapy in Managing Lower Extremity Lymphedema
Bandages for Lymphedema
Garments Stockings for Lymphedema
Pumps for Lymphedema Treatment
are not for lymphedema
Device - Initial
Device for Arm
to Choose a Lymphedema Therapist
Kinesio Taping (R)
Laser Treatment - Sara's
Light Beam Generator Therapy
Lymphedema Treatment Programs
Lymphedema Treatments are
Short Stretch Bandages
Information for Lymphedema Forum
Compression Pumps cause
Complications with Lymphedema
us as we work for lymphedema patients everywehere:
be an advocacy group for lymphedema
patients. Working towards education, legal reform, changing insurance
promoting research, reaching for a cure.
Lymphedema People / Advocates
For information about
For Information about
For Lymphedema Personal
For information about How
to Treat a Lymphedema Wound
For information about
For information about
Exercises for Lymphedema
For information on Infections
Associated with Lymphedema
For information on Lymphedema
Lymphedema People - Support
The time has come for families, parents, caregivers to have a support
their own. Support group for parents, families and caregivers of
lymphedema. Sharing information on coping, diagnosis, treatment and
Sponsored by Lymphedema People.
No matter how you spell it, this is another very little understood and
frustrating conditions out there. This will be a support group for
suffering with lipedema/lipodema. A place for information, sharing
exploring treatment options and coping.
Come join, be a part of the family!
If you are a man with
lymphedema; a man with a loved one with lymphedema who you are trying
and understand come join us and discover what it is to be the master
the sufferer of lymphedema.
Support group for parents, patients, children who suffer from all forms
lymphangiectasia. This condition is caused by dilation of the
lymphatics. It can
affect the intestinal tract, lungs and other critical body areas.
Disorders Support Group @ Yahoo Groups
While we have a number of support groups for lymphedema... there is
there for other lymphatic disorders. Because we have one of the most
comprehensive information sites on all lymphatic disorders, I thought
it is time that one be offered.
Information and support for rare and unusual disorders affecting the
system. Includes lymphangiomas, lymphatic malformations,
hennekam's syndrome, distichiasis, Figueroa
syndrome, ptosis syndrome, plus many more. Extensive database of
available through sister site Lymphedema People.
If you an AOL fan and looking for a
support group in AOL
Groups, come and join us there.
People New Wiki Pages
you seen our new
Wiki pages yet? Listed
are just a sample of the more than 140 pages now listed in our Wiki
are also working on hundred more.
and take a stroll!
are not for
Lymphatic Drainage (MLD) and Complex Decongestive Therapy (CDT)
to Treat a Lymphedema
para-aortic lymph node dissection (EPLND)
Needle Biopsy - Fine Needle Aspiration
Lymphedema Gene VEGFC
Lymphedema Gene SOX18
Page Updated: Dec. 17, 2011