Antibiotic Glossary

Terms and Definitions for Antibiotics

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Antibiotic Glossary

Postby patoco » Fri Jun 22, 2007 2:01 am

Antibiotic Glossary

Lymphedema People

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com

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A

Actinomycin
Any of various red antibiotics isolated from soil bacteria

Allergen
Allergy-provoking substance
An antigen (substance that elicits an antibody response) is responsible for producing allergic reactions by inducing IgE formation. IgE antibodies, bound to basophils in circulation and mast cells in tissue, cause these cells to release chemicals when they come into contact with an allergen. These chemicals can cause injury to surrounding tissue - the visible signs of an allergy. An allergen can be almost anything which acts as an antigen to stimulate such an immune response.

Aminoglycosides
Aminoglycosides, class of antibiotics which are particularly useful for their effectiveness in treating Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections; the lincosamindes, clindamycin and lincomycin, which are highly active against anaerobic pathogens. There are other, individual drugs which may have utility in specific infections.

Generic and Brand names:
Gentamicin Garamycin, Kanamycin, Neomycin, Netilmicin
Streptomycin, Tobramycin

Amphotericin
An antibiotic and antifungal agent

Antibiotic enterocolitis
Enterocolitis caused by oral administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics, resulting from antibiotic-resistant staphylococci or the overgrowth of yeasts and fungi when the normal fecal gram-negative organisms are absent.

Antineoplastic antibioticAn antibiotic drug used as an antineoplastic in chemotherapy

Antibiotic
Type of antimicrobial agent made from a mold or a bacterium that kills, or slows the growth of other microbes, specifically bacteria. Examples include penicillin and streptomycin.

Antibiotic Allergy
An antibiotic may cause an allergic reaction, as is often the case with penicillin. See also drug allergy .

Antimicrobial agents
A general term for the drugs, chemicals, or other substances that either kill or slow the growth of microbes. Among the antimicrobial agents in use today are antibacterial drugs (which kill bacteria), antiviral agents (which kill viruses), antifungal agents (which kill fungi), and antiparisitic drugs (which kill parasites).

Antimicrobial resistance
Antimicrobial resistance is the result of microbes changing in ways that reduce or eliminate the effectiveness of drugs, chemicals, or other agents to cure or prevent infections.

Antimycin
A crystalline antibiotic active against various fungi

Azithromycin
An antibiotic approved for the treatment of chlamydia and bacterial infections of the skin and respiratory tract. It may also have activity against MAC, toxoplasmosis and cryptosporidiosis.

B

Bacteria
Bacteria are single-celled organisms that live in and around us. Bacteria may be helpful, but in certain conditions may cause illnesses such as strep throat, most ear infections, and bacterial pneumonia.

BacteriumThe singular form of bacteria.

Biological diversity (Biodiversity)
Refers to the number of living organisms and variability among them and their environments.

Bacitracin
bacitracin (băs"itrā'sin) [key], antibiotic produced by a strain of the bacterial species Bacillus subtilis. It is widely used for topical therapy such as for skin and eye infections; it is effective against gram-positive bacteria, including strains of staphylococcus that are resistant to penicillin (see Gram's stain). Bacitracin is toxic to humans and is no longer used internally.

C

Carbomycin
A colorless basic antibiotic that inhibits the growth of Gram-positive organisms

Ceftriaxone
Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to usually inaccessible infections, including those involving the meninges, eyes, inner ears, and urinary tract.

Cephalosporin
Cephalosporin (sef"ulōspôr'in) [key], any of a group of more than 20 antibiotics derived from species of fungi of the genus Cephalosporium and closely related chemically to penicillin. Cephalosporins, e.g., cefaclor (Ceclor), act against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (see Gram's stain) by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis. They are widely used to treat gonorrhea, meningitis, and staphylococcal and streptococcal infections in patients who cannot use penicillin. Overuse of cephalosporins has led to increased bacterial resistance to the drugs (see drug resistance.)

Generic Brands and Names

Cefadroxil, Cefazolin, Cephalexin, Cefaclor, Cefamandole,
Cephalexin, Cefoxitin, Cefprozil, Cefuroxime, Cefixime
Cefdinir, Cefditoren, Cefoperazone, Cefotaxime, Cefpodoxime
Ceftazidime, Ceftibuten, Ceftizoxime, Ceftriaxone, Cefepime

Chlamydia
A type of bacteria one species of which causes an infection very similar to gonorrhea in the way that it is spread, the symptoms it produces, and the long-term consequences.

Ciprofloxacin
An oral antibiotic approved for the treatment of many common bacterial infections. Sometimes administered to treat MAC in combination with other drugs. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal upset, seizures and rash.

Colonization
Colonization occurs when a new species of bacteria develops a colony (a group of the same type of bacteria) in a new location, such as the human intestinal tract. Bacteria can colonize a host without causing infection or disease.

Commensal
Usually refers to a microorganism that lives in close contact with a host organism (human, animal or plant) without causing disease in the host. Commensal organisms can be beneficial to the host. Some microorganisms can be a commensal for one host species but cause disease in a different species.

Culture
A test in which the doctor places a sample of blood or other body fluid onto a special growth medium called agar to see if any microbe grows. Certain bacteria, such as chlamydia and strep, and viruses, such as herpes simplex, can usually be identified using this method.

D

Dihydrostreptomycin
Antibiotic consisting of a hydrogenated form of streptomycin; used against tuberculosis and tularemia and Gram-negative organisms.

Doxorubicin
An antibiotic used as an anticancer drug

Doxycycline
An antibiotic derived from tetracycline that is effective against many infections; "Vibramycin is the trade name of doxycycline"

Drug
Under United States law, a drug is any substance (other than a food or device) that is intended for use in the diagnosis, cure or prevention of disease, or is intended to affect the structure or function of the body.

Drug Allergy
Certain drugs can cause a severe allergic reaction, known as an anaphylatic reaction . First exposure to a drug does not cause this reaction but subsequent exposure may. However an anaphylact oid reaction can occur following the first injection of certain drugs (e.g. polymyxin, Pentamidine, Opioids and contrast media used for x-rays).
Although many organ systems can be involved in an allergic drug reaction, the skin is most commonly affected. Dermatologic reactions include urticaria , angioedema , dermatitis (allergic contact dermatitis, photodermatitis, exfoliative dermatitis), fixed drug eruption, and erythema multiforme (characterized by a rash and patches of red skin all over the body).

Drug resistance
Drug resistance is the result of microbes changing in ways that reduce or eliminate the effectiveness of drugs, chemicals, or other agents to cure or prevent infections.

E

Ecological impact
The changes induced by natural or human activity on the ecology and living organisms.

Ecology
The study of the relationships and interactions between organisms and the environment.

Ecosystem
A place with living (animals, plants, microorganisms, and other organisms) and nonliving (soil, water, rocks) elements that form a complex web of interdependency.

Effluent
Wastewater (treated or untreated) that leaves a water treatment plant, sewer, or industrial operation; generally, waste that is discharged into surface water.

EndogenousDeveloping or originating within the organisms or arising from causes within the organism.

Enteric bacteria
Bacteria that live in the intestines of humans or animals.

Environment
Physical elements that form one's surroundings.

Enoxacin
An orally administered broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent active against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Its clinical efficacy has been confirmed in a variety of systemic infections and particularly in urinary tract infections. The drug is well tolerated by adults, but should not be used in children and pregnant women

Epidemiology
The study of the spread of diseases. Epidemiologists are often sent to investigate outbreaks.

Erythromycin
erythromycin (irith"rōmī'sin) [key], any of several related antibiotic drugs produced by bacteria of the genus Streptomyces (see antibiotic). Erythromycin is most effective against gram-positive bacteria such as pneumococci, streptococci, and some staphylococci (see Gram's stain). The antibiotic also has some effect on gram-negative bacteria and some fungi. Erythromycin inhibits protein synthesis in susceptible microorganisms. It is used to treat such diseases as pneumonia caused by fungi, and streptococcus and syphilis infections, especially where the patient is allergic to penicillin.

F

Fastidious
Having to do with microorganisms which have unusual and/or complex nutritional needs and must be grown on enriched media.

Fluroquinolones
The fluroquinolones are synthetic antibacterial agents, and not derived from bacteria. They are included here because they can be readily interchanged with traditional antibiotics. An earlier, related class of antibacterial agents, the quinolones, were not well absorbed, and could be used only to treat urinary tract infections. The fluroquinolones, which are based on the older group, are broad-spectrum bacteriocidal drugs that are chemically unrelated to the penicillins or the cephaloprosins. They are well distributed into bone tissue, and so well absorbed that in general they are as effective by the oral route as by intravenous infusion.

Fungi
Single-celled or multicellular organisms. Fungi can be either opportunistic pathogens (such as aspergillosis, candidiasis, and cryptococcosis) that cause infections in immunocompromised persons (including cancer patients, transplant recipients, and persons with AIDS) or pathogens (such as the endemic mycoses, histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis, and superficial mycoses) that cause infections in healthy persons. Fungi are also used for the development of antibiotics, antitoxins, and other drugs used to control various human diseases.

G

Gene
Segment of a DNA molecule carrying instructions for the construction of a protein; a unit of heredity.

Generic vs. trade name (non-generic) antibiotics
Commercially available antibiotics may be referred to by two different names. The generic name is the common family identification provided by chemists, for example "Amoxicillin." The trade name is given to it by the manufacturer and is often used by doctors and pharmacists when prescribing and dispensing the drugs. One trade name for Amoxicillin is Augmentin.

Gentamicin
An antibiotic (trade name Garamycin) that is derived from an actinomycete; used in treating infections of the urinary tract. A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from an actinomycete of the genus Micromonospora, used in its sulfate form to treat various infections.

Gramicidin
An antibiotic produced by a soil bacterium; used chiefly as an antiseptic in treating local infections produced by Gram-positive bacteria, produced by the soil bacterium Bacillus brevis.

Gram-positive vs. gram-negative bacteria
When gram-positive bacteria are stained with a dye, the cell wall holds the dye inside and the bacteria are stained dark purple. Cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are more permeable - they do not retain much of the dye, and so their cell walls do not show much stain.

Growth promoters
A class of substances, usually antibiotics, used at low doses to promote growth in food animals.

H

Horizontal gene transfer
Exchange of genetic material between two microorganisms; no new microorganism is created.

Host A multicellular organism (such as a tree, dog, or human) colonized by either commensal or pathogenic microorganisms.

I

Immunization
The process or procedure by which a subject (person, animal, or plant) is rendered immune, or resistant to a specific disease. This term is often used interchangeably with vaccination or inoculation, although the act of inoculation does not always result in immunity.

Infection
An invasion of an organism by a pathogen such as bacteria or viruses. Some infections lead to disease. A state in which disease-causing microbes or organisms such as bacteria or viruses have invaded or multiplied in body tissues. Some infections do not cause disease because the microbe is quickly killed or hides where it cannot be detected. Some infections do lead to disease.

Infectious Disease
Disease caused by microbes that can be passed to or among humans. It occurs when cells or molecules in a person's body stop working properly, causing symptoms of illness. Many things can make someone more susceptible to disease, including altered genes, chemicals, aging, and infections.

Interaction
Altered reaction of the body to one drug when another is taken as well.

Invanz
INVANZ is a broad-spectrum, injectable, carbapenem antibiotic with activity against gram-positive, gram-negative, and anaerobic bacteria.

Indicated for the following moderate to
severe infections:
Diabetic foot infections without osteomyelitis,
Complicated intra-abdominal infections,
Complicated skin/skin structure infections,
Community-acquired pneumonia,
Acute pelvic infections,
Complicated urinary tract infections

J

K

Kanamycin
Antibiotic (trade name Kantrex) used to treat severe infections

L

Ketek
Generic Name: telithromycin. Brand Names: Ketek, Ketek Pak, Ketek is used to treat bacterial infections in the lungs and sinuses. Telithromycin is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria, such as bronchitis (infection of the airways that lead to the lungs), pneumonia (infection of the lungs), and sinus infections. Telithromycin is in a class of medications called ketolide antibiotics.

Lincomycin
An antibiotic derived from cultures of the bacterium Streptomyces lincolnensis, used in the treatment of certain penicillin-resistant infections.

Long-term care facility
A long-term care facility is a facility that provides rehabilitative, restorative, and/or ongoing skilled nursing care to patients or residents in need of assistance with activities of daily living. Long-term care facilities include nursing homes, rehabilitation facilities, inpatient behavioral health facilities, and long-term chronic care hospitals.

M

Macrolide
The macrolide antibiotics are derived from Streptomyces bacteria, and got their name because they all have a macrocyclic lactone chemical structure. Erythromycin, the prototype of this class, has a spectrum and use similar to penicillin. Newer members of the group, azithromycin and clarithyromycin, are particularly useful for their high level of lung penetration. Clarithromycin has been widely used to treat Helicobacter pylori infections, the cause of stomach ulcers.

Macrolides, Lincomycin, And Clindamycin
The macrolides are similar in structure and activity. All the macrolides, lincomycin, and clindamycin are absorbed when taken orally, and erythromycin, lincomycin, azithromycin, and clindamycin can also be given parenterally. All are primarily bacteriostatic and bind to the 50S subunit of the ribosome, thus inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. These drugs are active against aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive cocci, with the exception of enterococci, and against gram-negative anaerobes.

Generic and Brand Names

Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Clindamycin, Erythromycin, Lincomycin

Microbes
Organisms so small that a microscope is required to see them. Microbes are also called microorganisms.

Microorganism
Living organisms that are microscopic or submicroscopic: they cannot be seen with the human eye. They include bacteria, some fungi, and protozoa. Viruses are sometimes included in this category, although some scientists do not include viruses as microorganisms because they do not think that viruses should be classified as living organisms.

MRSA
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus. Bacteria that cause conditions such as furunculosis, pyemia, osteomyelitis, suppuration of wounds, and food poisoning. The patient is kept in isolation to stop the spread of this infection.

Multiple drug resistance
The ability of an organism to resist several different drugs.

Mutation
A change in the genetic material of a cell that can be harmful, beneficial, or have no effect.

Mycomycin
A highly unsaturated antibiotic acid obtained from an actinomycete

Mycoplasma
The mycoplasma are a very large group of bacteria. There are more than 70 types. Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are among the dozen types of mycoplasma that occur in humans.

N

Narrow-spectrum vs. broad-spectrum antibiotics
An antibiotic may be classified as "narrow-spectrum" or "broad-spectrum" depending on the range of bacterial types that it affects. Narrow-spectrum antibiotics are active against a select group of bacterial types. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are active against a wider number of bacterial types and, thus, may be used to treat a variety of infectious diseases. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are particularly useful when the infecting agent (bacteria) is unknown. Examples of narrow-spectrum antibiotics are the older penicillins (penG), the macrolides and vancomycin. Examples of broad-spectrum antibiotics are the aminoglycosides, the 2nd and 3rd generation cephalosporins, the quinolones and some synthetic penicillins.

Natural selection
A process by which organisms that are better adapted to their environment thrive and multiply, while organisms that are less well adapted to their environment fail to thrive and do not reproduce successfully.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, coffee-bean shaped diplococci bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of gonorrhhea.

Non-public health antimicrobial agents
Agents that control or inhibit odor-causing bacteria. (See public health antimicrobial agents.)

Norfloxacin
Quinoline-derived synthetic antibacterial agent with a very broad spectrum of action. Oral administration yields highly bactericidal plasma, tissue, and urine levels. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA-gyrase and is used in gastrointestinal, eye, and urinary infections.

NosocomialReferring to an infection acquired by a patient while in a hospital.

Novobiocin
An antibiotic obtained from an actinomycete and used to treat infections by gram-positive bacteria

O

Ofloxacin
An orally administered broad-spectrum quinolone antibacterial drug active against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Clinical efficacy has been confirmed in a variety of systemic infections as well as in acute and chronic urinary tract infections.

Organism
Any living thing. Organisms include humans, animals, plants, bacteria, protozoa, and fungi.

P

Parasites
Any organism that lives in or on another organism without benefiting the host organism; commonly refers to pathogens, most commonly in reference to protozoans and helminths.

Pathogens
Bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can cause disease.

Penicillinase
Penicillin amino á lactamhydrolase: an enzyme produced by certain bacteria which converts penicillin to an inactive product and thus increases resistance to the antibiotic. A purified preparation from cultures of a strain of Bacillus cereus is used in treatment of reactions to penicillin.

Penicillins
Penicillins are bactericidal, inhibiting formation of the cell wall. There are four types of penicillins: the narrow-spectrum penicillin-G types, ampicillin and its relatives, the penicillinase-resistants, and the extended spectrum penicillins that are active against pseudomonas. Penicillin-G types are effective against gram-positive strains of streptococci, staphylococci, and some gram-negative bacteria such as meningococcus. Penicillin-G is used to treat such diseases as syphilis, gonorrhea, meningitis, anthrax, and yaws. The related penicillin V has a similar range of action but is less effective. Ampicillin and amoxicillin have a range of effectiveness similar to that of penicillin-G, with a slightly broader spectrum, including some gram-negative bacteria. The penicillinase-resistants are penicillins that combat bacteria that have developed resistance to penicillin-G. The antipseudomonal penicillins are used against infections caused by gram-negative Pseudomonas bacteria, a particular problem in hospitals. They may be administered as a prophylactic in patients with compromised immune systems, who are at risk from gram-negative infections.

Generic and Brand Names

Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Cloxacillin, Dicloxacillin, Nafcillin
Oxacillin, Penicillin G, Penicillin V, Piperacillin, Ticarcillin

Pharmacokinetic
The action of drugs in the body over a period of time, including the processes of absorption, distribution, localization in tissues, biotransformation and excretion.

Plasmid
A small loop of genetic material, not part of the chromosomes, that can be easily transferred between bacteria.

Polypeptides
Polymyxin B and colistin (polymyxin E) are toxic and their use should be restricted to topical application. The polypeptides are bactericidal antibiotics with activity against gram-negative aerobic bacilli including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Polymyxin B and colistin are not active against Proteus sp and have no activity against gram-positive organisms. Both act by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane.

Polymyxin B and colistin are not absorbed when given orally. They are used topically (eg, ear, eye, urinary bladder).

Prophylactics
Drugs used to prevent disease, before any symptoms of the disease have been observed.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. Aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.

Public health antimicrobial agents
Agents that are intended to control infectious microorganisms that may be a hazard to human health. To obtain the designation of "public health" antimicrobial for an agent, a manufacturer must present data to the EPA demonstrating that the agent is effective against specific infectious microorganisms and meets standards of safety and toxicity. An agent is considered effective if it controls the specified microorganisms, not necessarily the diseases caused by the microorganisms. The manufacturer cannot claim that the agent prevents diseases.

Pyocyanase
A yellow-green mixture of antibiotics obtained from the bacillus of green pus.

Pyocyanin
A toxic blue crystalline antibiotic found in green pus.

Q

Quinolones
Form a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. They are related to nalidixic acid. QUINOLONES containing a 4-oxo (a carbonyl in the para position to the nitrogen). They inhibit the A subunit of DNA GYRASE and are used as antimicrobials. Second generation 4-quinoloines are also substituted with a 1-piperazinyl group at the 7-position and a fluorine at the 6-position.

Also known as Fluoroquinolones

Generic and Brand Names

Ciprofloxacin, Enoxacin, Gatifloxacin, Levofloxacin, Lomefloxacin
Moxifloxacin, Norfloxacin, Ofloxacin, Trovafloxacin

R

Reservoir of resistance
A phrase used to describe commensal bacteria that are resistant to antimicrobials. These commensal bacteria will not cause disease in their hosts; however, the resistance may eventually be transferred to an organism that will cause an antimicrobial-resistant disease in another host.

S

Selective pressure
The influence exerted by some factor (such as an antibiotic) on natural selection to promote one group of organisms over another. In the case of antibiotic resistance, antibiotics cause a selective pressure by killing susceptible bacteria, allowing antibiotic-resistant bacteria to survive and multiply.

Spectinomycin
Acts on ribosome and inhibits the growth or multiplication of bacteria.

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus)A type of bacterium that comes in pairs and is shaped like a lancet (a surgical knife with a short wide two-edged blade).

Pneumococcus is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia and otitis media (middle ear infections) and an important contributor to bacterial meningitis. Pneumococcal infections are the most common invasive bacterial infections in children in the United States, causing about 1,400 cases of meningitis, 17,000 cases of bloodstream infections, and 71,000 cases of pneumonia every year in children under 5.

Streptomycin
Streptomycin (strep"tōmī'sin) [key], antibiotic produced by soil bacteria of the genus Streptomyces and active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (see Gram's stain), including species resistant to other antibiotics, e.g., some streptococci, penicillin-resistant staphylococci, and bacteria of the genera Proteus and Pseudomonas. Originally isolated by Selman A. Waksman and Albert Schatz in 1947, streptomycin is effective against tubercle bacilli and is a mainstay of tuberculosis therapy. Because streptomycin-resistant tubercle bacilli emerge during treatment, the antibiotic is usually used in combination with one or more of the drugs isoniazid, ethambutol, and aminosalicylic acid. Streptomycin acts by inhibiting protein synthesis and damaging cell membranes in susceptible microorganisms. Possible side effects include injury to the kidneys and nerve damage that can result in dizziness and deafness.

Streptomyces erythreus
Source of the antibiotic erythromycin from streptomyces - aerobic bacteria (some of which produce the antibiotic streptomycin).

Streptomyces griseus
Source of the antibiotic streptomycin

Subtherapeutics
Drugs used at levels that are too low to be effective in controlling disease; antibiotics are commonly used in subtherapeutic doses for growth promotion for food animals.

Sulfonamides
The sulfonamides are synthetic bacteriostatic antibiotics with a wide spectrum against most gram-positive and many gram-negative organisms. However, many strains of an individual species may be resistant. Sulfonamides inhibit multiplication of bacteria by acting as competitive inhibitors of p-aminobenzoic acid in the folic acid metabolism cycle. Bacterial sensitivity is the same for the various sulfonamides, and resistance to one sulfonamide indicates resistance to all.

Superbug
Some bacterial strains have become resistant to so many antibiotics that they are sometimes referred to as "superbugs" or "supergerms." Examples of superbugs are Staphylococcus aureus that are resistant to methicillin and vancomycin, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a cause of many lung and burn infections), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) (can cause an infection in the digestive system), and multi-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (the bacteria that causes TB). Some of these strains resist all known antibiotics - more than 100 different drugs.

Surveillance Systems
The ongoing systematic collection and analysis of data. The data may lead to actions taken to prevent and control an infectious disease.

Susceptibility
A measure of how well antimicrobials affect bacteria. Susceptible bacteria can be killed or inhibited by an antimicrobial.

T

Tetracycline
Any of a group of antibiotics produced by bacteria of the genus Streptomyces. They are effective against a wide range of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, interfering with protein synthesis in these microorganisms (see Gram's stain). Tetracycline is used to treat rickettsial bacterial infections such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, some eye, respiratory, intestinal, and urinary infections, some kinds of acne, and some diseases where the infecting microorganism is resistant to penicillin (see drug resistance). Tetracycline may cause permanent discoloration of developing teeth, and it is not given to pregnant and lactating women and growing children. Because of the development of strains of microorganisms resistant to the tetracyclines, these antibiotics have lost some of their usefulness. Aureomycin is a trade name for the derivative chlortetracycline, and Terramycin is a trade name for oxytetracycline.

Generic and BrandNames

Demeclocycline, Doxycycline, Minocycline, Oxytetracycline, Tetracycline

Therapeutics
Drugs used to treat disease.

Transposon
A small amount of DNA that can easily move between genetic elements such as chromosomes and plasmids. Transposons often carry genes specifying antimicrobial resistance.

Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is a fixed combination (1:5) of the two drugs and is usually bacteriostatic. The dosage ratios are set to produce a 20:1 ratio of SMX to TMP in blood and tissues, which gives maximal antibacterial activity. Both drugs block the folic acid metabolism cycle of bacteria and are much more active together than either agent is alone. Sulfonamides are competitive inhibitors of the incorporation of p-aminobenzoic acid. TMP prevents reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate. TMP-SMX is active against most gram-positive and gram-negative organisms but is inactive against anaerobes. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is usually resistant.

U

V

Virus
A strand of DNA or RNA in a protein coat that must get inside a living cell to grow and reproduce. Viruses cause many types of illness; for example, varicella virus causes chickenpox, and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes the acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS.

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Because antibiotics play such a crucial role in our day to day health and even survival, it is important for those of us with lymphedema to be fully educated about antibiotics, what they will and will not do and about proper useage.

I wholeheartidly support and endorse the work of the Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics and highly recommend to visitors and members you visit their website and familiarize yourself with the information they provide.

Pat

Original Post of June 16, 2006 - 543 views

REFERENCES:

Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics

http://www.tufts.edu/med/apua/index.html

The Glossary

http://www.tufts.edu/med/apua/Miscellan ... ssary.html

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Resources and References for the Glossary:

The Merck Manual

http://www.merck.com/

Infoplease

http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0817646.html

Centers for Disease and Control

http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/glossary.htm

Kenyon.edu

http://biology.kenyon.edu/slonc/bio38/s ... ssary.html

Health A to Z

http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/At ... iotics.jsp

............

For basic additional information please see:

Lymphedema Antibiotics

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com/thesite ... iotics.htm

For indepth specific information including case studies:

Antibiotics

The layperson's guide to antibiotics. What they are, how they work, when they will not work, Extended information and links.

http://antibioticinformation.blogspot.com/
patoco
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Re: Antibiotic Glossary

Postby patoco » Thu Oct 08, 2009 10:48 am

Reviewed October 8, 2009
patoco
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Posts: 2175
Joined: Thu Jun 08, 2006 9:07 pm


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