Arm Lymphedema and Cellulitis

delayed breast cellulitis, recurrent cellulitis, recurrent erysipelas, soft tissue infections, Dermatolymphangioadenitis (DLA), Flesh Eating Bacteria, Bacterial Infections, Strep Infections, bacterial cellulitis, prophylactic antibiotics

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Arm Lymphedema and Cellulitis

Postby patoco » Fri Oct 20, 2006 10:15 am

Arm Lymphedema and Cellulitis - A review of the Literature

Lymphedema People

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com

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Recurrence of lymphoedema-associated cellulitis (erysipelas) under prophylactic antibiotherapy: a retrospective cohort study.

1: J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006 Aug;20(7):818-22

Vignes S, Dupuy A.
Department of Lymphology, Hopital Cognacq-Jay, Paris, France. stephane.vignes@hopital-cognacq-jay.fr

OBJECTIVE: To identify the predictors of successful antibiotic prophylactic treatment using benzathin-penicillin G to prevent recurrence of erysipelas in patients with secondary upper limb lymphoedema. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study.

SETTING AND PATIENTS: Patients with secondary arm lymphoedema were recruited in a single lymphology unit between 1990 and 2003. All patients had had at least three recurrences of erysipelas. Patients were given 2.4 MU benzathin-penicillin G intramuscularly at 14-day intervals. For each patient, the following data were recorded: characteristics of breast cancer treatment (type of surgery, radiotherapy, hormone therapy), number of erysipelas recurrences before inclusion, patient characteristics including body mass index (BMI) and lymphoedema volume at inclusion.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome studied was the occurrence of erysipelas on the affected arm under antibiotic prophylactic treatment.

RESULTS: With a 4.2-year median follow-up from the onset of antibiotic prophylactic treatment, 23 of 48 women experienced recurrence of erysipelas. The median duration of erysipelas recurrence-free period under this treatment was 2.7 years. The estimated rate of recurrence was 26%[95% confidence interval (CI) 13-38%] at 1 year and 36% (95% CI 22-50%) at 2 years. No patient stopped the treatment because of side-effects. No predictive factor of erysipelas recurrence under antibiotic prophylactic treatment was identified.

CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic prophylaxis using benzathin-penicillin is a well-tolerated treatment of erysipelas recurrence in patients with upper limb lymphoedema secondary to breast cancer. The rate of erysipelas recurrence was 26% at 1 year in patients who had a history of at least one erysipelas. We did not find any predictor

http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/ab ... 06.01648.x

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Erysipelas after breast cancer treatment (26 cases).

1: Dermatol Online J. 2005 Dec 1;11(3):12.

Masmoudi A, Maaloul I, Turki H, Elloumi Y, Marrekchi S, Bouassida S, Ben Jemaa M, Zahaf A.
Department of Dermatology, Hedi Chaker Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia. masmoudiabd@yahoo.fr

Erysipelas is a bacterial hypodermal cellulitis usually associated with Streptococcal infection. Erysipelas of the upper limbs in women treated for breast cancer is relatively rare. We undertook a 10-year retrospective study identifying 26 cases of erysipelas of the upper limb following treatment for breast cancer; we describe the clinical, therapeutic, and evolutionary aspects. The age of our patients ranged from 37 to 80 years with a mean age of 53. All patients had a breast surgery and lymphadenectomy. Fifteen patients had chemotherapy and 23 had radiotherapy. The erysipelas appeared with an average of 5.23 years after cancer treatment (3 months to 15 years) and was recurrent in nine cases. Lymphedema occurred in eighteen patients.

The first signs were fever and shivering in 25 patients. The clinical aspect was an inflammatory plaque. The physical findings of erysipelas included a raised edge (6 cases), blisters (1 case), purpura (1 case), and cellulitis (1 case). The portal of entry was not found in eleven patients. The upper limb was affected in all cases. Involvement of the axillary folds or the chest was observed in eight cases. Treatment with penicillin was undertaken for all patients; the length of treatment varied from 11 to 26 days.

Lympadenectomy and radiotherapy in breast cancer may lead to lymphedema, which can be evident or sometimes discrete. Those patients who developed erysipelas in our series usually fared well with treatment, but many had recurrences attributed to persistent lymphedema. It was also of note that for many patients in this series, the portal of entry was not identified.

http://dermatology.cdlib.org/113/case_r ... moudi.html

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Erysipelas of the upper extremity following locoregional therapy for breast cancer.

1: Breast. 2005 Oct;14(5):347-51. Epub 2005 Jun 28

El Saghir NS, Otrock ZK, Bizri AR, Uwaydah MM, Oghlakian GO.
Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 113-6044, Beirut, Lebanon. nagi.saghir@aub.edu.lb

Cellulitis is a well-known complication of lymphedema of the lower extremities. Erysipelas of the upper extremity complicating breast cancer therapy has never been reported in the English-language literature. We describe seven breast cancer patients with erysipelas of the upper extremity. Five had a predisposing injury to the extremity. All patients responded very well to intravenous antibiotics without any sequelae. They had rapid resolution with typical desquamation. No long-term sequelae were seen except for mild increase of lymphedema. Erysipelas should be listed as a rare complication after locoregional therapy for breast cancer. Intravenous penicillin should be used as the initial therapy. Prevention of arm lymphedema and avoidance of any trauma to the arm are important prophylactic measures. Sentinel lymph node biopsy reduces the rate of axillary lymph node dissection and thus should reduce the incidence of lymphedema and erysipelas.

http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve ... 60-9776(05)00059-7

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Antibiotics / anti-inflammatories for reducing acute inflammatory episodes in lymphoedema of the limbs.

1: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(2):CD003143

Badger C, Seers K, Preston N, Mortimer P.

BACKGROUND: Lymphoedema is a chronic and progressive condition and current debate revolves around the best course of management for infective/inflammatory episodes. O

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether antibiotic/anti-inflammatory drugs given prophylactically reduce the number and severity of infective/inflammatory episodes in patients with lymphoedema.

SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group register in September 2003, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2003), CINAHL, MEDLINE, PASCAL, SIGLE, UnCover, reference lists produced by The British Lymphology Society, the National Research Register (NRR) and the International Society of Lymphology congress proceedings.

SELECTION CRITERIA: Types of studies considered for review were randomised controlled trials testing an antibiotic or anti-inflammatory drug against placebo (with or without physical therapies).

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Eligibility for inclusion was confirmed by two blinded reviewers who screened the papers independently using a checklist of criteria relating to the randomisation and blinding of a trial. Both reviewers extracted data from the eligible studies using a data extraction form.

MAIN RESULTS: Overall, four studies (364 randomised patients) were included. Two of these studied the effects of intensive physical treatment plus selenium or placebo in preventing AIE, and two studied the effects of Ivermectin, Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) (anti-filarial agents) and penicillin as prophylactic treatment for adeno lymphangitis(ADL) versus placebo.Both selenium trials reported no inflammatory episodes during the trial period in the treated group but one case of infection in the two placebo groups respectively during the first three weeks of each trial. Seven additional cases of infection in trial one and 14 cases in trial two required treatment in the three month follow up period.One anti filarial trial reported a total of 127 ADL episodes for all groups during the treatment year (compared with 684 episodes reported for the same participants during the pre-treatment year). Another 228 ADL episodes were reported during the trial follow-up year but no significant differences were found between the three groups. No apparent link was found between the grade of oedema and the frequency of ADL episodes. However, there was a significant link between increased episodes and the rainy season. In the penicillin group the mean number of inflammatory episodes was reduced from 4.6 to 0.5 after treatment and increased to 1.9 at the end of the follow-up year.

REVIEWERS' CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of selenium in preventing AIE in lymphoedema remains inconclusive in the absence of properly conducted randomised controlled trials. Anti-filarials (DEC and Ivermectin) do not appear to reduce ADL episodes in filarial lymphoedema. Foot care may be important in reducing ADL episodes, and penicillin appears to contribute to a significant reduction in ADL, when combined with foot-care. It seems reasonable to emphasise the importance of foot-care to patients and practitioners in preventing infection and this may also apply to care of the arm in women who develop lymphoedema following breast cancer treatment. However, properly conducted trials are needed to demonstrate any efficacy of these interventions.

http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/c ... frame.html

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