Lymphatic Filariasis - Research Abstracts

Wuchereria bancrofti vespid, Immune response, Serum immune complexes diagnosis, Diethylcarbamazine (DEC), Wolbachia in filarial parasites, Interdigital skin lesions, Urban Filariasis, Doxycycline, mass drug administration program, Filarial Lymphedema Care, Detection of filarial parasites, Albendazole, research abstracts

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Lymphatic Filariasis - Research Abstracts

Postby patoco » Fri Jul 07, 2006 8:18 am

Lymphatic Filariasis - Research Abstracts

Lymphedema People

http://www.lymphedemapeople.com

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Participation in three consecutive mass drug administrations in Leogane, Haiti.

June 2006

Mathieu E, Direny AN, de Rochars MB, Streit TG, Addiss DG, Lammie PJ.

Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724, USA. emm7@cdc.gov

OBJECTIVES: In the global effort to eliminate lymphatic filariasis, mass drug administrations (MDAs) are organised annually. The success of this strategy depends on achieving high levels of drug coverage, which reduce the number of persons with circulating microfilariae and consequently transmission. Persons who consistently fail to participate in MDAs represent a potential threat to the goal of filariasis elimination. We wanted to know the drug coverage, the proportion of persons who were systematically non-compliant and factors associated with this behaviour.

METHODS: We conducted three surveys following the third annual MDA of a filariasis elimination program in Leogane, Haiti: (1) a total population survey to determine coverage; (2) an adult survey to determine non-compliance and associated factors and (3) an urban survey to make a rural-urban comparison.

RESULTS: During the third MDA, the overall surveyed coverage was 78.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 74.4-82.6] A survey among adult population showed coverage estimates for persons >14 years old of 59.4% (95% CI 52.0-66.7), 61.0% (95% CI 55.0-67.4) and 67.3% (95% CI 60.5-74.0), for the first, second and third MDA respectively. The coverage in rural areas (78.3%) was significantly higher than in urban areas (68.3%, P < 0.05). Of the population > 14 years of age, 18% never took the drugs during any of three MDAs. These persons did not differ significantly from MDA participants by age, gender or other characteristics that we assessed.

CONCLUSION: More research is needed to identify characteristics of systematically non-compliant persons in order to refine health education messages and improve distribution strategies to increase drug coverage.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/quer ... med_docsum

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Community-based study to assess the efficacy of DEC plus ALB against DEC alone on bancroftian filarial infection in endemic areas in Tamil Nadu, south India.

June 2006

Rajendran R, Sunish IP, Mani TR, Munirathinam A, Arunachalam N, Satyanarayana K, Dash AP.

Centre for Research in Medical Entomology, Madurai, India. crmeicmr@icmr.org.in

As part of the Global Programme for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF), India is implementing mass drug administration (MDA) with annual single dose of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) with and without albendazole (ALB). The impact of MDAs on filarial infections and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections was assessed during a 3-year period in two communities, one with DEC + ALB and the other with DEC alone. Prior to each MDA (during 2001, 2002 and 2003), filarial indices (microfilaraemia and antigenaemia) were assessed from blood samples of 450-650 persons aged 2-25 years and STH infections in stool samples (Kato-Katz method) from 325 to 500 children aged 9-10 years.

Mosquitoes resting indoors were collected to determine the filarial infection status. The microfilaraemia prevalence decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in both arms, with the highest decline in the DEC + ALB arm (72%vs. 51%). Decline in micrefilaria intensity was also higher in the DEC + ALB arm (81.4%vs. 48.5%). In this arm alone, the antigenaemia prevalence was reduced significantly (62%; P < 0.001). The reduction in STH prevalence was lower in the DEC alone arm (6.5%; NS) than in the DEC + ALB arm (70.9%; P < 0.001). Also, the egg reduction in DEC alone arm was only half that of DEC + ALB arm (49%vs. 97%).

Our community-based follow-up study showed higher and sustained benefits with regard to filarial and STH infections for the two-drug arm over the DEC alone arm. The trends suggest that at least 10 MDAs may be necessary to achieve the goal of elimination

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/quer ... med_docsum

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Use of Brugia Rapid dipstick and ICT test to map distribution of lymphatic filariasis in the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste.

Jan 2006

Melrose W, Rahmah N.

Lymphatic Filariasis Support Center, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia. wayne.melrose@jcu.edu.au

The newly-introduced Brugia Rapid dipstick for filarial antibodies and ICT filarial antigen card test were used to confirm historical data on the distribution of lymphatic filariasis in the Republic of Timor-Leste. Twelve out of thirteen districts were confirmed as being endemic. Brugian filariasis predominates, with an average prevalence of 11.6%. The average prevalence of Bancroftian filariasis was 1.1%. The study demonstrated that the Brugia Rapid test can provide useful information about the distribution of Brugian filariasis in circumstances where it is difficult or impossible to obtain night blood samples for microfilariae.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/quer ... med_docsum

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A campaign of 'communication for behavioural impact' to improve mass drug administrations against lymphatic filariasis: structure, implementation and impact on people's knowledge and treatment coverage.

June 2006

Ramaiah KD, Vijay Kumar KN, Hosein E, Krishnamoorthy P, Augustin DJ, Snehalatha KS, Nanda B, Das PK.

Vector Control Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Medical Complex, Indira Nagar, Pondicherry - 605 006, India.

In the mass drug administrations (MDA) that form the principal strategy of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, treatment coverages of at least 65%-80% will be needed if the programme is to be successful. In the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, where treatment coverages were typically <65%, a comprehensive strategy of advocacy and communication, called the 'communication for behavioural impact' (COMBI) campaign, has been developed and implemented, in an attempt to improve treatment coverage. This strategy combined advocacy, aimed at state-, district- and village-level administrations, with communication activities targeted at individual communities. The main aim was to alter the behaviour of many of those included in the rounds of MDA, so that they would be more likely to accept and consume the diethylcarbamazine tablets offered to them.The COMBI campaign had two variants, COMBI(+) and the more intensive COMBI(+ +), each of which has been implemented in six districts. Both the variants included the 'personal selling' of treatment, via door-to-door visiting by a total of 113,500 filaria-prevention assistants. These assistants were able to visit 34%-49% of the households in each target community. In the COMBI(+ +) districts, up to 44% and 38% of households received information on lymphatic filariasis and its elimination via television commercials and posters, respectively. Overall, 78% of the villages in the COMBI(+ +) districts and 33% of those in the COMBI(+) districts were considered to have had good exposure to the communication campaign. At the end of this campaign about 30% more people (than pre-campaign) believed that lymphatic filariasis could be eliminated and many of those targeted considered lymphatic filariasis to be a dreadful disease, knew that a particular day had been designated 'Filaria Day', and thought that the tablets offered in MDA should be consumed to prevent or eliminate the disease. Apparently as the result of the COMBI campaign, drug consumption increased, from 33% of those living in endemic communities, to 37% in the COMBI(+) districts and to 49% in the COMBI(+ +). Coverages as high as 65%-73% were recorded among those who had had the maximum exposure to the communication campaign.These results indicate that the COMBI campaign favourably changed the perception and behaviour of the people towards the elimination of lymphatic filariasis. The costs of the COMBI(+) and COMBI(+ +) strategies were only U.S.$0.002 and U.S.$0.009 per capita, respectively.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/quer ... med_docsum


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